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Illustrated Flora

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/1a Illustrated Flora





leroy abrams


Vol. Ill






London : Geoffrey Cumberlege Oxford University Press







The author is very grateful to the following contributors : Roxana Stinchfield Ferris for the family Euphorbiaceae, except for the genus Euphorbia whicii was con- tributed by Louis Cutter Wheeler, and for the text of Hackelia in the Boraginaceae ; Ira Loren Wiggins for the families Malvaceae, Cactaceae, except for the genus Opuntia which he contributed jointly with Carl Brandt Wolf, and the Solanaceae; George Neville Jones for the family Hypericaceae ; Philip Alexander Munz for the family Onagraceae; Mildred Esther Mathias and Lincoln Constance for the family Umbelliferae ; Rimo Bacigalupi for the family Garryaceae ; Herbert Louis Mason for the family Polemoniaceae, except for the genus P olemonium which was contributed by John Eraser Davidson and for the genus Gilia which was contributed jointly by Herbert Louis Mason and Alva Day Grant ; Lincoln Constance for the family Hydro- phyllaceae ; and Erancis Whittier Pennell for the family Scrophulariaceae, except for the genera Orthocarpus and Penstemon which were written by David Daniels Keck. The text of the remaining famihes was written by the author. Ira Loren Wiggins has given much assistance in solving the nomenclatorial and taxonomic problems. Roxana S. Eerris has selected the material for the original illustrations and, together with Sylvia Vincent and Barbara Law, has done the necessary editorial work of checking references and reading manuscript and proof.

As in Volume I the illustrations are original except those which were used from Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. The use of these illustrations is gratefully acknowledged to the New York Botanical Garden. The original drawings are, for the most part, the work of Jeanne Russell Janish. The drawings for the Onagraceae and Polemoniaceae were, in part, made at Pomona College and the University of California, respectively. A number of drawings scattered throughout the various plant families have been made by William S. Atkin- son, Alice Baldwin Addicott, Louise Nash, and Lawrence Beane.


Stanford University




Index of Genera and Families


861 863

71. Geraniaceae 1

72. Oxalidaceae 8 IZ. Linaceae 9

74. Zygophyllaceae 14

75. Rutaceae 17

76. Simaroubaceae 19 n . Burseraceae 20

78. Polygalaceae 21

79. euphorbiaceae 23

80. Callitrichaceae 42

81. Buxaceae 45

82. Empetraceae 45

83. Limnanthaceae 46

84. Anacardiaceae 50

Choripctalac (continued) 1-287

85. Celastraceae 53

86. Staphyleaceae 55

87. aceraceae 56

88. Aesculaceae 58

89. Balsaminaceae 59

90. Rhamnaceae 59

91. Vitaceae 81

92. Malvaceae 82

93. Sterculiaceae 112

94. Hypericaceae 115

95. Elatinaceae 118

96. Frankeniaceae 119

97. Tamaricaceae 120

98. CiSTACEAE 122

99. ViOLACEAE 123

100. loasaceae 133

101. Datiscaceae 142

102. Cactaceae 143

103. Thymelaeaceae 163

104. Elaeagnaceae 163

105. Lythraceae 164

106. Onagraceae 167

107. Haloragidaceae 212

108. Araliaceae 213

109. Umbelliferae 215

110. Cornaceae 283

111. Garryaceae 284

112. Pyrolaceae 287

113. Monotropaceae 292

114. Ericaceae 297

115. Vacciniaceae 326

116. Primulaceae 331

117. Plumbaginaceae 344

118. Styracaceae 345

119. Oleaceae 346

120. loganiaceae 350

Sympetalae 287-859

121. Gentianaceae 350

122. Menyanthaceae 365

123. Apocynaceae 367

124. Asclepiadaceae 372

125. Dichondraceae 380

126. Convolvulaceae 380

127. cuscutaceae 390

128. polemoniaceae 396

129. fouquieriaceae 474

130. Lennoaceae 475

131. Hydrophyllaceae 476

132. boraginaceae 532

133. Verbenaceae 609

134. Menthaceae 614

135. Solanaceae 662

136. Scrophulariaceae 686


Choripetalous Plants (continued) 1-287

71. Geranium Family 1

72. Wood-sorrel Fam-

ily 8

72. Flax Family 9

74. Caltrop Family 14

75. Rue Family 17

76. Quassia Family 19

77. ToRCHwooD Family 20

78. Milkwort Family 21

79. Spurge Family 23

80. Water-starwort

Family 42

81. Box Family 45

82. Crowberry Family 45

83. Meadow-foam

Family 46

84. Sumac Family 50

85. Staff-tree Fam-

ily 53

86. Bladder-nut

Family 55

87. Maple Family 56

88. Buckeye Family 58

89. Jewel-weed Fam-

ily 59

90. Buckthorn Fam-

ily 59

91. Grape Family 81

92. Mallow Family 82

93. Sterculia Fam-

ily 112

94. St. John's-wort

Family 115

95. Waterwort Fam-

ily 118

96. Frankenia Fam-

ily 119

97. Tamarisk Fam-

ily 120

98. RocKROSE Family 122

99. Violet Family 123

100. LoASA Family 133

101. Datisca Family 142

102. Cactus Family 143

103. Mezereum Family 163

104. Oleaster Family 163




105. Loosestrife Fam-

ily 164

106. Evening-primrose

Family 167

107. Water-milfoil

Family 212

108. Ginseng Family 213

109. Carrot Family 215

110. Dogwood Family 283

111. Silk-tassel Fam-

ily 284


ILY 287

113. Indian-pipe Fam-

ily 292

114. Heath Family 297

115. Huckleberry

Family 326

116. Primrose Family 331

117. Plumbago Family 344

118. Storax Family 345

119. Olive Family 346

Sympetalous Plants 287-859

120. LoGANiA Family 350

121. Gentian Family 350

122. BucKBEAN Family 365

123. Dogbane Family 367

124. Milkweed Family 372

125. DicHONDRA Fam-

ily 380

126. Morning-glory

Family 380

127. Dodder Family 390

128. Phlox Family 396

129. Fouquieria Fam-

ily 474

130. Lennoa Family 475

131. Waterleaf Fam-

ily 476

132. Borage Family 532

133. Vervain Family 609

134. Mint Family 614

135. Potato Family 662

136. Figwort Family 686


VOL. Ill


Family 71. GERANlACEAE.

Geranium Family.

Herbs with alternate or opposite, palmately lobed or pinnate leaves, usually with stipules. Flowers regular or slightly irregular. Sepals 5, rarely fewer, usually per- sistent. Petals of the same number as sepals, hypogynous. Stamens as many or 2-3 times as many ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Carpels 5, united about a central axis, each 1-2-ovuled, indehiscent, at length elastically splitting away from below, and beaked by the long style.

About 12 genera and 470 species, natives of the temperate regions, most abundant in South Africa.

Anther-bearing stamens 10; style-beaks glabrous on the inner surface. 1. Geranium.

Anther-bearing stamens 5, alternating with S sterile filaments; style-beaks pubescent on the inner surface.

2. Er odium.

1. GERANIUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 676. 1753.

Herbs with stipulate, palmately lobed, cleft or divided leaves and axillary 1-2-flowered peduncles. Flowers regular, 5-merous. Sepals imbricated. Petals hypogynous, imbri- cated. Stamens 10, generally 5 longer and 5 shorter. Style persistent, glabrous on the inner surface, becoming recurved. Carpel opening along the inner face. [Name Greek, a crane, from the long beak of the fruit.]

About 190 species, widely distributed in temperate regions. Type species, Geranium sylvaticum L.

Plants annual or biennial.

Peduncle 1-flowered. 1. G. sibiricum.

Peduncle 2-flowered.

Sepals without subulate tips; seeds smooth.

Stamens 10; carpel-bodies wrinkled, glabrous. 2. G. molle.

Stamens 5; carpel-bodies not wrinkled, pubescent. 3. G. piisillum.

Sepals with subulate tips; seeds reticulate or pitted.

Style-beak and its branches less than 3 mm. long; fruiting pedicels about equaling the calyx.

Seeds deeply reticulate; carpel-bodies short-hirsute with spreading hairs.

4. G. dissectum.

Seeds finely reticulate; carpel-bodies long-villous with ascending hairs.

5. G. carolinianuni.

Style-beak and its branches more than 4 mm. long; fruiting pedicels much longer than the calyx. Peduncles appressed-pubescent or with retrorse glandless hairs. 6. G. cohimbinum.

Peduncles glandular-pubescent with spreading hairs. 7. G. Bicknellii longipes.

Plants perennial from taproots or rootstocks.

Petals less than 1 cm. long; stems rather densely and retrorsely pubescent, not glandular.

8. G. retrorsum. Petals over 1 cm. long.

Petals glabrous except for the cilia at base; free tips of styles 1-2. S mm. long; fruiting pedicels erect

and straight. 9. G. oreganiim.

Petals pilose on the lower one-fourth to one-half of the inner surface; fruiting pedicels spreading or reflexed and ultimately bent upward. Petals pilose on the lower one-fourth of inner surface; stems stout.

Lower part of stem and petioles of basal leaves glandular-villous with an indument of short

glandular pubescence. 10. G. viscosissimum.

Lower part of stems and petioles of basal leaves strigose or retrorsely pubescent with short whitish nonglandular hairs. 11. C nervosum.

Petals pilose on the lower one-half of the inner surface; stems slender.

Free tips of styles 3-4.5 mm. long. 12. G. Richardsonii.

Free tips of styles 6-9 mm. long. 13. G. calif ortiicum.

1. Geranium sibiricum L. Siberian Geranium. Fig. 2963.

Geranium sibiricum L. Sp. PI. 683. 1753.

Annual, the stems 3-10 dm. long, decumbent or ascending, freely branched, whole plant villous- pubescent. Leaves nearly orbicular, 5-7 cm. broad, deeply 3-5-parted; divisions broadly lanceo-



late, cleft or toothed; peduncles slender, S-8 cm. long, 1-flowered, 2-bracted near the middle; sepals oval, (i-l mm. long, minute, awn-tipped ; petals white with purple veins, slightly exceeding the sepals; fruiting style-beak 10-13 mm. long, carpel-bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, puberulent and sparingly hairy ; seeds minutely reticulate.

Sparingly naturalized in the Pacific States, also New York and Illinois. Type locality: Siberia. May-June.

2. Geranium molle L, Dove's-foot Geranium. Fig. 2964.

Geranium molle L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753.

Annual, the stems widely branching from the base, slender, decumbent or ascending, 1-5 dm. long, whole plant soft-villous. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 15-35 mm. broad, generally cleft only to a little below the middle; the divisions 7-11, obovate or cuneate, 3-5-toothed at the apex; peduncles 2-flowered ; sepals 4-5 mm. long, not awned ; carpel-bodies distinctly wrinkled trans- versely, glabrous ; fruiting style-beak 10 mm. long, sparingly pubescent ; seeds smooth or striate.

Lawns and pastures, naturalized from Europe, Humid Transition Zone; Vancouver Island to southern California. Feb.-June.

3. Geranium pusillum L. Small-flowered Geranium. Fig. 2965.

Geranium pusillum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 957. 1763.

Annual, the stems slender, weak, widely branching from the base, 1-5 dm. long, whole plant pubescent or short-villous. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 10-35 mm. broad, deeply divided into 7-9 divisions, these oblong, entire or 3-toothed; peduncles short, 5-15 mm. long, 2-flowered; pedicels 10-25 mm. long ; sepals 3-4 mm. long, awnless ; petals pale purple, little exceeding the sepals, notched ; carpel-bodies pubescent or strigose, not wrinkled ; fruiting style-beak 8-9 mm. long ; seeds smooth.

Waste places, naturalized from Europe, mainly Humid Transition Zone; British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and coastal northern California; also eastern United States and Canada. May-Sept.

4. Geranium dissectum L. Cut-leaved Geranium, Fig. 2966.

Geranium dissectum L. Amoen. Acad. 4: 282. 1760. Geranium laxum Hanks, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 9. 1907.

Annual, resembling the preceding species, the stems usually more slender, decumbent or as- cending, retrorsely pubescent. Leaves deeply cleft, the inain divisions parted into linear segments ; pedicels glandular-hirsute ; sepals 7-8 mm. long including the awn-tips, which are about 2-3 mm. long; petals purple, about equaling the sepals; fruiting style-beak about 12 mm. long, glandular- villous ; carpel-bodies 2-2.5 mm. long, hirsute; seeds deeply reticulate.

Moist meadows and waste places, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; frequent in the Pacific States, and possibly native, but scarcely distinct from the European type. Type locality: southern Europe. April-Oct.

5. Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina Geranium. Fig. 2967.

Geranium carolinianum L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753.

Annual or biennial, the stems usually branched below, erect or ascending, more or less glan- dular-pubescent. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 3-6 cm. broad, deeply divided, the main divisions cleft or parted into oblong or oblong-linear lobes ; peduncles and pedicels short, the flowers usually in compact clusters at the ends of the branches; sepals oval, 6-10 mm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, the awn-tips about 2 mm. long ; petals pale rose or white, about equaling the sepals ; fruit- ing style-beak 12-18 mm. long, pubescent with spreading often somewhat glandular hairs ; carpel- bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, pilose with erect hairs; seeds finely reticulate, 1-1.5 mm. thick.

Moist meadows or banks, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; throughout the Pacific States and extending across the continent. Type locality: Carolina. April-Oct.

Geranium sphaerospermum Fernald, Rhodora 37: 298, pi. 372, figs. 1-5. 1935. Very similar to G. carolini- anum; rnature sepals 5-8 mm. wide, 5-nerved; seeds subspherical, 2-2.5 mm. thick. Washington south to northern California and east to Ontario and New York. Type locality: Great Cloche Island, Ontario.

6. Geranium columbinum L. Long-stalked Geranium. Fig. 2968.

Geranium columbinum L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753.

Annual, the stems slender, decumbent or prostrate, sparsely pubescent with appressed hairs. Leaves orbicular-reniform in outline, 5-9-parted, the main divisions rather narrow, variously cleft into linear segments ; peduncles and pedicels slender, usually longer than the leaves, re- trorsely pubescent; sepals awn-tipped, 10-12 mm. long; petals rose-purple, slightly exceeding the sepals; style-beak 15 mm. long, strigose; carpel-bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, smooth and glabrous; seeds prominently reticulate.

Sparingly naturalized in Washington and Oregon, also in the eastern United States. Type locality: Europe. May-Aug.



2963. Geranium sibiricum

2964. Geranium moUe


2965. Geranium pusillum

2966. Geranium dissectum


2967. Geranium carolinianum

2968. Geranium columbinum

7. Geranium Bicknellii var. longipes (S. Wats.) Fernald. Bicknell's Geranium.

Fig. 2969.

Geranium carolinianum var. longipes S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 50. 1871. Geranium nemorale Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 16: 222. 1898. Geranium longipes Goodding, Bot. Gaz. 37: 56. 1904. Geranium Bicknellii var. longipes Fernald, Rhodora 37: 297. 1935.

Annual, the stems simple below and erect, or branched and more or less spreading, pubescent with spreading hairs, often glandular above, the lower node retrorsely pubescent. Leaves 2-7 cm. broad, somewhat angulate and 5-sided or the lowest orbicular in outline, the main divisions in- cised or cleft into lanceolate or oblong segments ; petioles, peduncles and pedicels glandular- pubescent ; sepals awn-tipped, 7-8 mm. long ; petals rose-purple, about equaling the sepals ; fruit- ing style-beak 16-22 mm. long, glandular-hirsute.

Sandy soils in clearings and burnt-over lands, mainly Arid Transition Zone; British Columbia to Wash- ington, Oregon and northern California, east to Nova Scotia and New York. Type locality: southeastern New York. May-Aug.

Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Sp. Geran. 27. 1759. Perennial with a short scaly caudex, the stems simple below, sometimes tufted, retrorsely hirsute. Leaves orbicular in outline, 4-9 cm. broad, the 5-7 mam divisions 3-5-lobed; peduncles and pedicels glandular-puberulent; sepals awnless, S-6 ram. long, ciliate; petals purple, about twice as long as the sepals, obcordate; fruiting style-beak 12-15 mm. long, glandular-pubescent; seeds granular. Native of Europe, locally naturalized in California.

8. Geranium retrorsum L'Her. New Zealand Geranium. Fig. 2970.

Geranium pilosum Forst. f. ex DC. Prod. 1: 642. 1824. Not Cav. 1788.

Geranium retrorsum L'Her. ex DC. Prod. 1 : 644. 1824.

Geranium pilosum var. retrorsum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 589. 192S.

Perennial with a large taproot and branched caudex, the stems branched, 1-6 dm. long, more


or less retrorse-hirsute. Leaves 15-40 mm. broad, finely hirsute, 3-5-parted, the main divisions cleft or incised into linear or lanceolate lobes ; pedicels retrorsely and usually appressed-pubes- cent ; sepals awn-tipped, 5-6 mm. long, finely hirsute ; petals purple, 6-9 mm. long, deeply notched at the apex; fruiting style-beak 9-11 mm. long, minutely pubescent; seeds minutely reticulate.

Sparingly introduced from Australasia; San Francisco, Marin and Humboldt Counties, California. Type locality: New Zealand. June-Sept.

Geranium glabratum (Hook.) Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 10. 1907. Perennial with a taproot and a more or less branched caudex, the stems spreading or decumbent, 1-7 dm. long, sparingly pubescent with retrorse hairs or nearly glabrous. Leaves 2-4 cm. broad, sparingly pubescent, 3-S-parted, the main divisions cuneate, usually with 3 broad teeth at the apex; pedicels retrorse-pubescent; sepals awn-tipped, about 5 mm. long, becoming nearly glabrous, except on the nerves; petals purple, 5-6 mm. long, nearly rounded at the apex; fruiting style- beak 11-12 mm. long, minutely pubescent; seeds reticulate. Native of Australasia, sparingly naturalized m California.

9. Geranium oreganum Howell. Oregon Geranium. Fig. 2971.

Geranium incisum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:206. 1838, as a synonym; Trelease, Mem. Bost.

Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 74. 1888. Not Andrews 1797. Geranium albiflorum var. incisum Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. Geranium, Hookerianum var. incisum Walp. Rep. 1: 450. 1842. Geranium oreganum Howell, Fl. N. W. Amer. 106. 1897.

Perennial, with simple caudex, the stout scape-like stems 3-7 dm. high, sparingly hirsute or glabrate, not glandular. Leaves 6-15 cm. wide, strigose on both sides, somewhat 5-angled in outline, 5-parted, the divisions cleft and coarsely toothed ; pedicels glandular-hirsute ; sepals awn- tipped, 11-12 mm. long, short-hirsute; petals 15-23 mm. long, purple, glabrous except the ciliate base; filaments ciliate at base; free style-tips 2 mm. long; fruiting style-beak 3-5 cm. long, densely glandular-pubescent ; seeds 3-3 . 5 mm. long, closely reticulate.

Edges of woods and open moist ground. Humid Transition Zone; southwestern Washington south through Oregon on the west side of the Cascade Mountains to northwestern California. Type locality: Willamette Valley, Oregon. May-Sept.

10. Geranium viscosissimum Fisch. & Mey. Sticky or Viscid Geranium.

Fig. 2972.

Geranium viscosissitnum Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 11: Suppl. 18. 1846. Geranium canttm Rydh. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 14. 1907.

Perennial with stout, usually simple caudex, the stems stout, scape-like, 3-8 dm. high, first internode much elongated, densely villous with spreading or sometimes retrorse usually viscid hairs, interspersed with more or less abundant short glandular hairs. Leaves 6-12 cm. wide, densely hoary, suborbicular in outline, 3-5-parted, the divisions sharply incised ; pedicels densely glandular-hirsute; sepals awn-tipped, 13-15 mm. long, glandular-pubescent; petals purple, 13-18 mm. long; free style-tips 4-5.5 mm. long; fruit glandular toward the apex; seeds closely re- ticulate.

Prairies and open woods. Arid Transition Zone; British Columbia and northeastern Washington to northern California and northwestern Nevada, east to Saskatchewan and western South Dakota. Type locality: western North AJnerica. May-Aug.

11. Geranium nervosum Rydb. Teton Geranium. Fig. 2973.

Geranium nervosum Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 28: 34. 1901.

Geranium strigosum Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 29: 243. 1902. Not Burm. f. 1768.

Geranium strigosius St. John, Fl. S. E. Wash. 243. 1937.

Perennial, with usually simple caudex and scape-like stems, pubescent below with short re- trorse nonglandular hairs. Leaves 5-10 cm. broad, 3-5-parted, the divisions incised ; petioles of the basal leaves elongated, retrorsely pubescent; pedicels glandular-hirsute, the glands often yellowish; sepals awn-tipped, 9-11 mm. long, minutely pubescent and ciliate; petals 15 mm. long, pink with prominent darker veins ; fruiting stylar column 25-30 mm. long, glandular-hir- sute; seeds reticulate.

Woods and open meadows. Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; eastern Washington to northeastern Cali- fornia and Nevada, Wyoming, and Colorado. Type locality : Fish Creek, Teton Forest Range, Wyoming. May- Aug.

12. Geranium Richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. Richardson's Geranium. Fig. 2974.

Geranium albiflorum Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 116. 1831. Not Ledeb. 1831. Geranium Richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 4: 37. 1837. Geranium Hookerianum Walp. Rep. 1: 450. 1842.

Geranium pentagynum Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. Tour North. Mexico 90. 1848. Geranium loloense St. John, Fl. S. E. Wash. 242. 1937.

Perennial, the stems erect or ascending, 2 . 5-7 dm. high, usually simple, glabrous or sparingly glandular-pubescent. Leaves thin, 3-15 cm. broad, 3-7-parted, the main divisions incised, toothed or lobed, sparsely strigose on the upper surface and on the veins beneath; pedicels slender, 1-2 cm. long, glandular-pubescent, the glands usually purple ; sepals awn-tipped, 8-12 mm. long, the outer ones more or less glandular-pubescent at least below; petals white, with pink or purple veins, rarely flushed with pink, 10-18 mm. long, pilose inside for about half their length; fila- ments reddish purple, short-pilose about three-fourths their length; mature stylar column 2-2.5 cm. long, pubescent and with interspersed glandular-villous hairs; free style-branches yellow-


ish, 3-5 mm. long; carpel-bodies sparingly pubescent, and glandular-hispid on the keel- seeds

.5-0.5 mm. long, coarsely reticulate.

Moist soils, Transition and Canadian Zones; eastern British Columbia to Saskatchewan and South Dakota south to northern Mexico. In the Pacific States it ranges from the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon south through the Sierra Nevada to the mountains of southern California. Type locality: vallevs of thp RorW Mnnr. tains, collected by Drummond between latitudes 52° N. and 54° N. May-July. ^

Geranium concinnum G. N. & F. F. Jones, Rhodora 45: 38. 1943. Somewhat intermediate between G Rtchardsonit and G. cahfornicum. The length of the free style-tips is intermediate between the two species- hairs of the pedicels are tipped with yellowish glands instead of purple; pubescence of the stem and petioles differs from both species in being finely retrorse-pubescent to nearly glabrous; petals 10-15 mm. long pale pink or lavender. Known localities are: Olancha Mountain and Kern River (type locality), Tulare County Frazier Mountain, Ventura County; and Bear Valley, San Bernardino County, California; all stations at altitudes of 7,000—9,000 feet.

13. Geranium californicum G. N. & F. F. Jones. California Geranium. Fig. 2975.

Geranium leucanthtim Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 18. 1907. Not Griseb. 1874. Geranium californicum G. N. & F. F. Jones, Rhodora 45: 38. 1943.

Perennial, with a heavy caudex and ascending rather slender stems, 2-4 dm. high. Leaves thin, 3-parted, the divisions incised or toothed, more or less appressed-pilose ; petioles with spreading or retrorse pilose hairs; pedicels and sepals densely glandular-pubescent, the glands usually yellowish; petals 16-21 mm. long, veiny, white or pale pink; style-column 20-25 mm. long; style-branches 6-7 mm. long; carpel-bodies hairy.

Moist woods or meadows, Arid Transition Zone; Sierra Nevada, from Yosemite National Park southward and in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains, California. Type locality: Pine Ridge, Fresno County' California. June-Aug.

Pelargonium L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 424. 1789. The well-known pelargoniums or "geraniums" of gardens belong to this African genus, which is distinguished from true geraniums chiefly by the irregular flowers. Several species often grow spontaneously along roadsides or in waste places where garden refuse has been dumped, especially in southern California.

2. ERODIUM L.Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2:414. 1789.

Herbs with mostly jointed nodes, opposite or alternate stipulate leaves, and axillary umbellate nearly regular flowers. Sepals 5, imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricated, the 2 upper slightly smaller. Glands 5. Anther-bearing stamens 5, with slightly dilated filaments alternating with as many sterile filaments. Styles becoming spirally coiled after splitting away from the central column, pubescent on the inner face. Carpel-bodies nar- rowed at the base, closed. Seeds smooth. [Name Greek, meaning heron, in reference to the beaked fruit.]

About 60 species, widely distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Type species, Erodium crassi- folium Soland.

Leaves not pinnately parted.

Leaves palmately parted, lobed or toothed, cordate at base, about as broad as long.

Pedicels closely appressed-pubescent; leaves deeply cleft or divided. 1. E. texanum.

Pedicels glandular-pubescent with spreading hairs; leaves shallowly lobed or toothed.

2. E. macrophyllum. Leaves pinnatifid, much longer than broad, not cordate at base. 3. E. Botrys.

Leaves pinnately parted.

Sepal-tips without bristle-like appendages; anther-bearing filaments 2-toothed. 4. E. moschatum.

Sepal-tips with 1 or 2 bristle-like appendages; anther-bearing filaments toothless. 5. E. cicutarium.

1. Erodium texanum A. Gray. Texas Filaree. Fig. 2976.

Erodium texanum A. Gray, Gen. III. 2: 130. 1849.

Stems several from the base, 4-25 cm. long, the whole plant appressed-pubescent and canes- cent, not glandular. Leaves deltoid-ovate or ovate, 1 . 5-5 cm. long, cordate, subpalmately 3-5- lobed, crenate-dentate ; sepals minutely awn-tipped, 10-13 mm. long; petals purple, the early ones exceeding the sepals, the latter much reduced; fruiting style-beak 4-6 cm. long.

Sandy soils. Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Mojave and Colorado Deserts, southern California to Lower California and Texas. Type locality: Texas. April-May.

2. Erodium macrophyllum Hook. & Arn. Large-leaved Filaree. Fig. 2977.

Erodium macrophyllum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 327. 1837.

Mostly nearly or quite acaulescent, puberulent with few interspersed glandular hairs at least on the pedicels. Leaves triangular-ovate or reniform, crenate-serrate, sometimes crenately-lobed ; peduncles exceeding the leaves, sepals glandular-hirsute, minutely awn-tipped, the outer 11-16 mm. long; petals equaling the sepals, dull white; carpel-bodies truncate, 2.5-4 mm. broad at apex, densely velvety-pubescent.

Occasional in dry grassy places in the valleys or low foothills, Upper Sonoran Zone; Oregon to Lower California. Type locality: California. March-May.

Erodium macrophyllum var. californicum (Greene) Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 247. 1901. (Erodium californicum Greene, Fl. Fran. 99. 1891.) Like the typical species in general habit; peduncles and pedicels less puberulent, but abundantly beset with long gland-tipped hairs; petals purple. Central and southern Calitornia. Type locality; "Berkeley Hills and eastward in the Mt. Diablo Range."




2969. Geranium BicknelHi

2970. Geranium retrorsum

2971. Geranium oreganum

2972. Geranium viscosissimum

2973. Geranium nervosum

2974. Geranium Richardsonii


2975. Geranium califomicum

2976. Erodium texanum

2977. Erodium macrophyllum


glandular-pilose; sepals glandular-pubescent, mucronate; petals rose-purple, 4-5 mm. long; fruiting styles about 2.5 cm. long. Locally established in central California. Native of the Mediterranean region.

Erodium cygnorum Nees in Lehm. PI. Preiss. 1: 162. 1844. Stems 1-5 dm. high, somewhat hispidulous Leaves villous, ovate in outline, 3-5-parted, the division incisely toothed; peduncles 3-S-flowered- pedicels not glandular; calyx pubescent; petals 6-7 mm. long, blue; fruiting styles 4-6 cm. long. Locally established in southern California. Native of Australia.

3. Erodium Botrys Bertol. Long-beaked Filaree. Fig. 2978.

Erodium Botrys Bertol. Amocn. Ital. 35. 1819.

Acaulescent or with a branching stem 3-5 dm. long, bristly-hirsute. Leaves pinnatifid or bi-

pinnatifid, or the basal crenate ; peduncles and pedicels glandular-hirsute; sepals 7-8 mm. long

in flower, twice as long in fruit, minutely awn-tipped, glandular-pubescent, upper sepal margined

with purple; petals 10-12 mm. long, cuneate, blunt at apex, purple with 3-5 dark purple veins;

style-beak stout, 9-12 cm. long; pits on carpei-body at base of beak 2, each subtended by two

folds forming smaller pits between.

Pastures and waste places, naturalized from the Mediterranean region; coastal valleys and foothills of California and sparingly in western Oregon. March-May.

Erodium obtusiplicatum (Maire, Weiller & Wilczek) J. T. Howell, Leaflets West. Bot. 5: 68. 1947. (.Erodium Botrys f. montantim Brumh. Rep. Nov. Spec. 2: 118. 1906; E. Botrys var. obtusiplicatum Maire Weiller & Wilczek, Bull. See. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 26: 120. 1935.) Similar to Erodium Botrys in habit; fruiting beak mostly shorter, 5.5-8.5 cm. long; pits in carpel-bodies 2, each with a single fold kielow; petals ST":iller, about equaling to one-fourth longer than the sepals. This is becoming common and widespread in California, but until recently (Wagnon and Biswell, Madrono 7: 118-125. fic/s. 1-3. 1943) its distinctive char- acters have not been recognized. Type locality: Morocco.

4. Erodium moschatum (Burm. f.) L'Her. Musk or White-stemmed Filaree.

Fig. 2979.

Geranium moschatum Burm. f. Sp. Geran. 29. 1759. Erodium moschatum L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 414. 1789.

Acaulescent and prostrate or with ascending branches, mostly rather stout and glandular- pubescent. Leaves rather ample, pinnate; stipules large, obtuse; leaflets unequally and doubly serrate ; peduncle several-flowered ; sepals not terminated by long bristles, 6-7 mm. long ; anther- bearing filaments 2-toothed.

Fields, pastures, and waste places, naturalized from southern Europe; British Columbia to southern Cali- fornia. Feb.-June.

5. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Red-stemmed Filaree. Fig. 2980.

Geranium cicutarium L. Sp. PI. 680. 1753.

Geranium aethiopicum Lam. Encycl. 2: 266. 1786.

Erodium cicutarium L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 414. 1789.

Erodium aethiopicum Brumh. & Thel. Mem. Soc. Sci. Cherbourg IV. 38: 352. 1911-12.

Acaulescent, or the stems 1-5 dm. long, decumbent or ascending, often canescent with hirsute pubescence, less glandular than the preceding. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets laciniately pinnatifid with narrow acute lobes ; pedicels slender; petals rose-colored or purple; sepals with 1-2 terminal bristle-like hairs ; anther-bearing filaments not toothed.


Fields and waste places, naturalized from southern Europe; British Columbia to southern California. Feb.-

2978 2978. Erodium Botrys

2979. Erodium moschatum

2980 2980. Erodium cicutarium



Wood-sorrel Family.

Annual or perennial, leafy-stemmed or acaulescent herbs, often with rootstocks or scaly bulbs, with sour sap (oxalic acid), and mostly palmately 3-foliolate leaves. Stipules commonly present as scarious margins to the bases of the petioles ; leaflets mostly obcordate. Flowers perfect, in umbel-like or forking cymes or rarely solitary, on mostly rather long peduncles. Sepals 5, often unequal. Petals 5, white, purple, or yellow. Stamens 10-15. Ovary 5-lobed, 5-celled; styles united or distinct; ovules 2 to many in each cell. Fruit a loculicidal, globose or columnar capsule. Embryo straight ; endosperm fleshy.

A family of 7 genera and about 330 species, chiefly in tropical regions.

1. OXALIS L. Sp. PI. 433. 1753.

Perennial caulescent or acaulescent herbs, from taproots, rootstocks or bulbs. Leaves alternate, usually with elongated petioles, trifoliolate; leaflets mostly obcordate, notched at the apex. Flowers on axillary or scape-like peduncles, sepals and petals 5; stamens 10. Seeds few to many in each cell, variously wrinkled, grooved, pitted or striate. [Name Greek, meaning sour, from the acid juice.]

A genus of about 300 species, mainly in warm temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Oxalis Aceto- sella L.

Flowers white or purple.

Cyme 1-flowered, subtended by 1 or 2 clasping bracts. 1. O. oregana.

Cyme several-flowered, umbel-like, subtended by a whorl of narrow bracts. 2. O. trilliifolia.

Flowers yellow.

Plants acaulescent; rootstocks bearing bulblets; petals 20 mm. long. 3. 0. cernua.

Plants caulescent; rootstocks not producing bulblets; petals less than 20 mm. long. Stems arising from slender rootstocks; longer filaments pubescent.

Petals 4-8 mm. long. 4. O. corniculata.

Petals 12-18 mm. long. 5. O. Suksdorfii.

Stems arising from a tufted woody fusiform root; longer filaments glabrous.

Pedicels with spreading pubescence, shorter than the capsules. 6. O. pilosa.

Pedicels with appressed pubescence, longer than the capsules. 7. 0. calif ornica.

1. Oxalis oregana Nutt. Oregon Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2981.

Oxalis oregana Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 211. 1838.

Oxalis Acetosella var. oregana Trelease, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 90. 1888.

Oxys oregana Greene, Man. Bay Reg. 71. 1894.

Oxalis macra Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25 : 26. 1907.

Oxalis Smalliana R. Knuth, Notizblatt 7: 308. 1919.

Oxalis oregana var. Tracyi Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 588. 1925.

Acaulescent perennial from slender creeping rootstocks, more or less rusty-villous. Leaflets broadly obcordate, 2-3 cm. long, on petioles 5-15 cm. long; peduncles scape-like, bearing a single flower ; pedicel subtended by 2 bracts ; petals white or rose-colored, purple-veined, oblong-ovate, 15-20 mm. long ; capsule round-ovoid, 7 mm. long.

Shady woods, Humid Transition and Canadian Zones; western Washington to Monterey County, California. Type locality: "Shady woods of the Oregon [Columbia River] in moist places." Feb.-Sept. Redwood Sorrel.

2. Oxalis trilliifolia Hook. Trillium-leaved Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2982.

Oxalis trilliifolia Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 118. 1830. Hesperoxalis trilliifolia Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 27. 1907.

Plants acaulescent, arising from stout rootstocks. Leaves with elongated glabrous or nearly glabrous petioles often 2 dm. long ; leaflets broadly obcordate, 25-40 mm. wide, glabrous above, sparsely pubescent beneath ; scapes about as long as the petioles ; cyme umbel-like, 2-8-flowered ; petals white or pink, 8-14 mm. long, deeply notched; capsule glabrous, erect, 25-30 mm. long, slender-fusiform.

Swamps and margins of streams, Canadian Zone; western Washington and Oregon. Type locality: near the Grand Rapids of the Columbia. June-Aug. Columbia Oxalis.

3. Oxalis cernua Thunb. Cape OxaHs. Fig. 2983.

Oxalis cernua Thunb. Diss. Oxalis 14. 1781. Bolboxalis cernua Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 28. 1907.

Acaulescent perennial, somewhat fleshy, bright green, the rootstocks bearing bulblets at the nodes. Leaves basal, with elongated petioles; leaflets broadly obcordate, 20-35 mm. broad, glabrous or sometimes pubescent beneath ; peduncles 1-4 dm. high, 4-20-flowered ; sepals lanceo-


late or linear-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long; petals deep yellow, 20-30 mm. long; filaments glabrous- capsule 5-8 mm. long, pubescent. '

Escaped from gardens and naturalized in many places in the Pacific States, especially near the coast in Cali fornia. Type locality: Cape of Good Hope. March-June.

4. Oxalis corniculata L. Creeping Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2984.

Oralis corniculata L. Sp. PI. 435. 1753.

Xanthoxalis corniculata Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 667. 1903.

Stems several, decumbent and creeping, arising from a slender taproot and flowering as an annual, but rooting at the nodes and becoming a perennial, the erect branches seldom over 1 dm. high. Leaflets small, green or purplish; flowers 2-5 on very short, strigillose at length, deflexed pedicels ; petals yellow, 4-6 mm. long, often with a reddish spot near the base ; longer filaments sparsely pubescent; capsule columnar, longer than the pedicels.

An introduced weed of wide distribution, found chiefly in lawns and greenhouses. Type locality: Italy March-Nov. Yellow Sorrel.

Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpiirea Planch. Fl. Serres 12: pi. 1205. 1857. Herbage deep reddish purple otherwise like the typical species. An escape from gardens, and often a weed along walks and in lawns especially in central and southern California. '

5. Oxalis Suksdorfii Trelease. Suksdorf's Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2985.

Oxalis piimila Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 212. 1838. Not Urv. 1829. Oxalis Suksdorfii Trelease, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 89. 1888. Xanthoxalis Suksdorfii Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 53. 1907.

Stems decumbent, arising from slender, sparsely branched rootstocks, 1-3 dm. long, more or less villous, often sparingly so. Leaflets deeply cordate, 15-25 mm. broad, bright green, with few scattered hairs on both surfaces ; peduncles about equaling the petioles, 1-3-flowered ; pedi- cels strigillose, refracted in fruit; petals yellow, 12-18 mm. long; longer filaments pubescent; capsules oblong, stout, densely short-pubescent.

Open forests, especially in disturbed areas, Humid Transition Zone; Vancouver, Washington, to Del Norte County, California. Type locality: "forests of the Rocky Mountains and Oregon." May-Aug.

6. Oxalis pilosa Nutt. Hairy Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2986.

Oxalis pilosa Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 212. 1838. Xanthoxalis pilosa Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 54. 1907.

Stems arising from a woody fusiform root, erect or decumbent, 1-4 dm. long, densely pilose with hairs often retrorsely spreading. Leaflets 7-15 mm. broad, gray-green, densely or sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, ciliate ; pedicels usually shorter than the capsules, refracted in fruit, hirsute; petals yellow, 8-12 mm. long; longer filaments glabrous, capsules cylindric, 12-28 mm. long.

Open grassy hillsides especially in sandy soil. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; California coastal region from Mendocino County to Los Angeles County. Type locality: Santa Barbara. April-Nov.

7. Oxalis californica (Abrams) R. Knuth. California Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2987.

Xanthoxalis californica Abrams, Bull. Torrey Club 34: 264. 1907. Oxalis californica R. Knuth, Notizblatt 7: 300. 1919.

Stems tufted on long-fusiform woody roots, erect or decumbent, 1^ dm. long, pubescent with lax or appressed hairs or nearly glabrous. Leaflets 7-15 mm. broad, gray-green, pubescent on both surfaces and ciliate ; peduncles longer than the petioles, 1-3-flowered ; pedicels very slender, strigillose, usually much longer than the capsule ; petals yellow or tinged with purple, 9-13 mm. long; capsule cylindric, 10-15 mm. long.

Gravelly or sandy soil, Upper Sonoran Zone; Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California, south to Lower California, also Santa Catalina Island. Type locality: Onofre Mountains, San Diego County, California. March-June.

Tropaeolum majus L. Sp. PI. 345. 1753. Nasturtium. Glabrous, somewhat succulent climbing annual. Leaves peltate, nearly orbicular, undulate on the margins; flowers axillary, showy, ydlow and orange, irregular; sepals 5, united at base, the posterior produced into a straight short spur; two upper petals entire or undulate, three lower fringed on the claw. The common nasturtium, which belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae, has become fairly well established as an escape in southern California. It is a native of Peru.

Family 7Z. LINACEAE. Flax Family.

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, or rarely opposite or whorled leaves. Stipules none, or when present small or gland-like. Flowers hypogynous, perfect and regular, racemose or cymose. Sepals 5, rarely 4 or 6, imbricated and persistent. Petals of the same number as the sepals and alternate with them, usually early deciduous. Stamens as many as sepals, their filaments united at base, and sometimes bearing staminodia in the sinuses ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Pistil with 2-3, or usually 5







2981. Oxalis oregana

2982. Oxalis trilliifolia

2983. Oxalis cernua


2984. Oxalis comiculata

2985. Oxalis Suksdorfii

2986. Oxalis pilosa

2987. Oxalis californica

2988. Linum usitatissimum

2989. Linum angustifolium


carpels, with as many free or partly united styles ; ovary 1-5-celled, or falsely 4-10- celled. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. Fruit a capsule, splitting longitudinally into twice as many parts as carpels. Seeds 1-2 in each cell, oily; endosperm little or none; embryo straight.

About 14 genera and 160 species of wide geographical distribution.

1. LINUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 277. 1753.

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at base. Stipules wanting, or small and gland-like. Leaves alternate, sessile, entire or rarely toothed. Sepals 5, persistent or de- ciduous. Petals 5, blue, red, yellow, or white. Stamens 5, their filaments united at base. Styles 2-5, elongated, distinct or partly united; stigmas elongated and introrse, or capitate and terminal. Capsule 2-5-celled; carpels with incomplete false septa. Seeds turgid, or flattened and lenticular or lunate. [The classical name of flax.]

About 90 species, natives of temperate and subtropical regions. Type species, Linum usitattsstmmn L.

Stigmas elongated, stigmatic along the inner surface; styles 5; petals unappendaged, blue; seeds flattened and lenticular.

Annual; sepals, at least the inner, ciliate on the margins.

Petals over 10 mm., often IS mm. long; fruiting capsule 6-7 mm. high, its valves glabrous on the inner

edge of the septum. 1. L. usitatissimum.

Petals under 10 mm., usually 7-8 mm. long; fruiting capsule 4-5 mm. high, its valves long-ciliate on the inner edge of the septum. 2. L. angustifoUum.

Perennial; sepals not ciliate on the margins. 3. L. Lewisii.

Stigmas capitate and terminal; styles 2-5.

Petals unappendaged and entire at base, yellow or white; styles 2 or 4—5; seeds flattened and somewhat lunate. Styles 4-5; herbage puberulent throughout; perennial. 4. L. puberuhim.

Styles 2; herbage glabrous throughout; annual. 5. L. digynum.

Petals with 1-3 ventral appendages and small lateral lobes at the base, rose-colored, white or yellow; styles 3; seeds turgid.

Leaves and bracts glandular-ciliate.

Flowers pink; leaves broadly ovate, flat. 6. L. drymarioides.

Flowers yellow; leaves lanceolate, involute. 7. L. adenophylliim.

Leaves and bracts entire. Petals yellow.

Staminodia 2; flowers scattered in pedicels well exceeding the calyx; petals 3-4 mm. long.

8. L. Clevelandii. Staminodia none; upper flowers in clusters of 2-3; pedicels shorter than calyx; petals 5-7 mm. long. 9. L. Breweri.

Petals white, pink or rose-purple.

Flowers on long filiform pedicels, not congested.

Petals 2-3 . 5 mm. long, their lateral lobes rudimentary or obsolete.

10. L. tnicranthum.

Petals 5-7 mm. long, their lateral lobes prominent and a little thickened.

11. L. spergulinum.

Flowers short-pedicelled or sessile and congested at the ends of the branches.

Plants glabrous and glaucous. 12. L. californicum.

Plants pubescent. 13. L. congcstum.

1. Linum usitatissimum L. Flax or Linseed. Fig. 2988.

Linum usitatissimum L. Sp. PI. 277. 1753.

Annual, erect often tufted, branching above, 3-5 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous. Leaves alternate, 3-nerved, lanceolate, 1-4 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, 3-nerved ; inflorescence a terminal cymose panicle ; pedicels slender ; sepals ovate, acuminate, the inner ones ciliate and 3-ribbed ; petals blue, 10-12 mm. long, cuneate-obovate, crenulate; styles distinct or nearly so; capsule ovoid-conic, 6-8 mm. long ; indehiscent.

Roadsides, naturalized from Europe; widely spread in the Pacific States, especially in western Washington and Oregon. May-June.

2. Linum angustifolium Huds. Narrow-leaved Flax. Fig, 2989.

Linum angustifolium Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. 2. 134. 1778.

Annual, the stems branching from the base, rather slender, 2.5-5 dm. high, upper flowering branches very slender. Leaves narrowly linear, 8-15 mm. long, sharply acute at apex; pedicels almost filiform, 1-2 cm. long; sepals 5 mm. long, ovate to broadly ovate, cuspidate at apex; petals blue, 7-8 mm. long; capsule subglobose, about equaling the sepals, inner margin of the valve- septa long-ciliate.

Adventive from the Mediterranean Region; western Oregon, especially along roadsides in Douglas County, and in coastal California from Humboldt County to San Mateo County. Type locality: Europe. June-Sept.


3. Linum Lewisii Pursh. Western Blue Flax. Fig. 2990.

Linum Lewisii Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 210. 1814. Linum deciirrens Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 3: 44. 1863. Linum Lyallanum Alef. Bot. Zeit. 25: 251. 1867. Linum Lewisii var. alpicola Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 398. 1936.

Perennial, glabrous throughout, the stems 2-6 dm. high, often branched at the base. Leaves erect or ascending, 1-2 cm. long, linear, acute, sessile, erect or ascending; bracts similar to the leaves; fruiting pedicels 1-3 cm. long; sepals ovate, 5 mm. long, not ciliate; petals blue or rarely white, 15-20 mm. long; styles distinct; capsule globose, 6-10 mm. long; septa ciliate.

Mountain meadows and grassy slopes, mainly Arid Transition Zone; Alaska to southern California and northern Mexico, east to Manitoba, Montana, Wisconsin, and Texas. Type locality: valleys of the Rocky Moun- tains. May-July.

4. Linum puberulum (Engelm.) Heller. Desert Yellow Flax. Fig. 2991.

Linum rigidum var. puberulum Engelm. in A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3^: 25. 18S2. Linum puberulum Heller, Plant World 1: 22.