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THE

NAUTILUS

A QUARTERLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF CONCHOLOGISTS

VOL. XXXI JULY, 1917, to APRIL, 1918

EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS HENRY A. PILSBRY

Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy of Natural Scieiices PHILADELPHIA

CHARLES W. JOHNSON

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History Boston

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INDEX

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THE NAUTILUS, XXXII.

INDEX TO TITLES, GENERA AND SPECIES.

Acella haldemani (Desh. ) 121160 ip wy, AAP aR RR MORE AEE 92 PeNGRE EST EWE SPECIES GOL sy h)5 ats Hie cierc e) , 6 ard sieve ware a 'e lai 142 Amnicola bakeriana Pilsbry, n. sp. .............-.--- 44, 87 Amnicola bakeriana nimia Pilsbry, n. var. ........... 45, 87 med ClAarKeL-EMADEY, Ts SPs cs. 4 c+ seeing ce ae 45, 88 AMTICO AY ONECIOA. EMS WITY TL. "BDs art We. elere bores 5 eich a aie ae 46, 88 Aramcolids from Oneida Lake; N.Y... 2)... ss. 44, 87 APP Maroons Ol MtIPPINES so). sc oc.k soe ete ase «shay 142 PASTETOPER ANTE 1h GUNTER 1 89040) 0 a9 68a 3 ilo; arate: sca, Wie Si eyo le x8 35 Ampullaria slobosa var. simistrorsa,......)...2.20---55- 36 Aner ids Of Oneida ake IN GY oe od.2 0h. 2.005) eine erg oa 90 Ancylidz, revision of the classification of North American 1 PRTACUAB PENAL LOM ATARI So) tet oho cts, oa tity dd bee eet me dae 8 PSE TEU TEMORDS MUTT is) cis vik cle. a diaials tela 0a aves, o) 4 Bias & Vai 5, 6 A AVC NaS wih 21 VTS A I a OS PC 4 Pe VLINS TRING US) CISA CAM ee cc's ceiver oeie idm = oily see Niele 3 UIA. HIS WWRLKOT 2 0) oi, hyo ai we 60 siejerwa snes 8 mewn fiyiaria pay (plas HOOD) spk sos ic. 2 es) cui 3 Vai Ga alas ie Ue as a Sa Rg oil Oe) aR Pe a 114 PE TRAIGEA Te UNTEIUSSM Gra ysis oa x ek add as osc hea Weak aya atiar Sealab, aa. 121 Arkancia wheeler Walk. (6 Ortime. <4... cs been ae 112, 1271 arkansas: molluses of Clark Cov. 60 Us den enn de 109 USL AMEE GCHAR EA MOAR B eh oe) Sod aMaig'e lites, aiken ek cowlat/ gala aa. Bh 10 PGES (Wilt te URAELY 90. SED e) (a) cy elo esajeras'e aslo ira elalaly oy aoa 11 ReMi ee! NEPA EPI i ese ite Wah se aia oie oaae a ahaa ad 34 Boreal land and freshwater shells, notes on ............ 12 Pera OL A TISCEALIA, .< zine d stin wis ene < ol Lee wate Ot cuales Sees 140 Maranelomalewisit Walker si. sou 0-/s.+ s.0sio<s saisinia vis esis 116

Carychium exiguum floridanum, n. subsp. (pl. 8, f. 4,6). 73 iii

iv THE NAUTILUS.

NT . b s Sig S blue aic's pine os ae ROR 43 OPCS. LIOR. ive p wine vind x50 sake wh eke eine 42 Cerithopsis anaitis n. n. for C. helena Bartsch not Boettger 72 Chondrus Reichenbach 1828, replaces Modicella Ads. 1854 81

Cireinaria vancouverensis from Unalaska.............. 13 Clark, William Bullock (obituary) .............e-ee0- 68 Collecting shells in a corner of the Sierra Nevada ...... 31 Crenodonta perplicata 0m! Mics sis noe eanw od onede 122 Cuba, collecting days about the Naval Station, Guanta- TinmNO TSOV: .. dod sb 0's bb tue La Vos bP olee olwe alae ktae Went 41 Cumberlandia monodonta Say...............2eeeeeees 121 Drupa foliacea Conrad (pl. 9, f. 1, 2,3)............... 100 Drupa moras tem (pl. 8. 2. 10). sea cee pea eae 102 Drupa tubereulata Blainv. (pl. 9,:f> 4D) 055.5 hence 102 Drnpa-vitiensis Puls, (pl.'9, £. 3) ies 4..4a te Boe nd nee 99 Drupa walkere Pils. and Bryan, n. sp. (pl. 9, f. 4)...... 99 Paymelin Verrall |: ., ss aos sake wae Pd oe ee 131 Epiphragmophora callistoderma Pils. & Ferr., n. sp. (pl. MEAL) in cb wih ci ph om Eaig ey Se pante wipeeieceltcde ERnaee eaten 33, 93 Epiphragmophora fidelis, albimistic .................. 72 Epiphragmophora tudiculata Binn., var. .............. 33 Epiphragmophora veatchii, station of ................- 144 BCE VAG ULUY ORTEGA TOAY soso cck sinless § © oie o,4 atallaleie< Beate 118 Ferrissia (Laevapex) diaphana Hald. (pl. 2, f. 4)...... 3 Perrinsia rivularie Say (pli 2, 3,38) . 2145s. shee] alee see 3 Berrissiinis Walker, Ti, ‘SUDIAM. 5 i65 core lau abides «> eee 2 Penneroln, TAANMIORL eo is hip evs B82 eee oes aa 2 Florida, a list of shells from the east coast of .......... 53 Friday Harbor, Washington, a summer’s collection at... 95 Fusconaia, a new type of the Nayad genus ............ 58 Hnsconais, barnemsne Lea o.oo by» be chis be bee eee 59 HPueccaain overkenais Call: |. oo. cc Sos ae Ee eee ee Fusinus sandwichensis Sowb. (pl. 9, f. 8).............-. 100 Gastrocopta contracta climeana Van. ..............0-- 114 Gratacap, Lonis Pope (obituary) ".\. s\ski<th ¢0.0ma ental 135 Goniobasis livescens Menke 3... 5. 1c. us cqie Ces sh eee 88 Gonionasis lawrencel Lies |. 0)... 5 visu oe & eee 117 Gundiachia ancyliformis Pfr). 5)s°..5 4.25 shoe. nee

Gundlachia hinkleyi Walker, n. sp. (pl. 1, f. 10-16, pl. 3, sai

Helix hortensis at Digby, Nova Scotia ...............-. 58 Helix nemoralis in Knoxville, Tenn................. 107, 133 Ischnochiton conspicuus, notes on the variation of ...... 37

Ischnochiton pilsbryanus Berry = I. (L.) nipponica Berry ois .fs hoy spo bss va ees ee eee 144

THE NAUTILUS. V

PRTC NCSU PANEED Semon claheyel is) ely c!'\c) lu ert) s4\s\2 eo) eee 4.00 6 2 4 Kennerivia rorresterensis. To SPs.) insinse co 6c specs sec se> 134 MAST eMURCE RM ets al a\'ats sc, eisielia\s) $16 4.608 esi «ata es 0,8 3

Lampsilis minor and L. villosa, distinctive characters of. 15 Lampsilis ventricosa cohongoronta in the Potomac River. 40

anc elamatnensis' Hann, (pl 2) 8. 2)... ek wee oe Tare arelmices Moen (pt. 2 fDi ee eee ca eee os 2 Lymnea emarginata mighelsii from Alaska ............ 12 Dyaneine of Oneida bake: NY Ys vii. sce hens’ «aes 92 Prachoceramits Tess) GUNG. oi) t oo, 6 5's ec 2 ens ols cee ste 0.8 2 43 Mrcroniya: Menose: Nigerrimg Dea! 8 es ose s12 sao wore eee 118 Mollusca of Clark County, Arkansas ..........h60.080 109 Mollusea of Oneida Lake, N. Y., further notes on the... 81 Mopalia imporcata lionotus, n. subsp. ...............-.. 126 POSOUNYe PAS INCE Ura RAs Vie. StsSnccaft S <ipy lc ate ora! « 4:'s-050, sie aya Biay’ 125 Mopala' muscosa laevior, 'n.’subsp. .........6...s00ese 126 MirpeamcieLdispre Col 9.5) Qe ei oe aid dave a Gee 99 Naiades, new genera and species of Central American... 47 Nayades, the anatomy of two African ................. 75 Ma ASA Sly cntayae Ny Cite fia scareranehera' a oie «tape otainizew, bast 47 Mecounpa targjuhar: Pisbry) We SPs fs ysis cue swe cee eo « 50 Nesopupa, prigualandiea MiG Pol... eae ee eee eee 51 Nodmamardouclasme. a Unio: si. eis 2 ase eee eles « 128 Nortomearolinta Tame SMOUS 1.853) el. ayes seye nee wee wie (ail Note on the relation of snail fauna to floods ............ 64 LS DUES RAR CORA ALY WRITS 1S J et Se oa a 35, 71, 107, 144 Nova. scotia, collectine at Ditby 00). Ss eek oe eens 57 MN CEEOM CRE OME GIO Te i) Ye cc SO anes shoe Wicaherde) ele ate dae Wialsias 71 Oreohelix handi Pilsbry & Ferriss, n.sp. ...........-- 31, 94 Peristernia thaanumi Pilsbry & Bryan, n. sp. (pl. 9, f. PPMP IR Ma Peleus e, ore eae ee ey tana Gen usta CANS matty sl sieved ea ied sia a 101 fewer OF Oneida Take, Woe Ye) als Seg bad. oe eee ae ees 89 Franormidse of Oneida Lake, Ny Yo so cais esc ce aed ee 90 Paton: SAMipsoml ANCE Y. Y's 7s) < 6 Ls soem o as saw etal gees 114 Plecotrema cubense from the mainland of Florida ...... 55 Evia Meret CULO Exar) Sha is) wales aipuae nleeie atepsesudreie aca s)$ 3 Polygyra albolabris maritima in Massachusetts ......... 108 Polygyra obstricta carolinensis Lea .................-6. 116 On EA: BIT BE DORGAN)? | Ale. oa aie tbo) + aig Sibel Qe a, wi etatw Grae 36 Polygyra columbiana from Unalaska .................. 13 Polygyra texasiana tillandsiw Cockerell, n. var. ........ 36 ESOT ys COLIC THOM %, Lio (tele ese widde Zc. e Ss cunt gierg ava eteyehal yi aes 36 Psoronaias kuxensis Frierson, n. sp. (pl. 7, f. 1, 2)...... 48 MBMGATONS TEGEIVOEO) .).'12). sclaredine aves <.saaeane 34, 69, 108, 140 Beichenbech: 8: AOGLOPIS: i) <srcia ox a ah 6 la w'ehath are ela Gal Nar 79

vi THE NAUTILUS.

Rhodacmea cahawbensis Walker, n. sp. (pl. 1, f.4-6).... 7 ETS Ft 5 ed ee Se 8 Rhodacmea filosa Conrad (pl. 3, f. 2) ...........+ee00- 6 Rhodacmea gwatkiniana Walk., n. sp. (pl. 1, f.3,7,9).. 9 SOCAN RNTERIOUL) WN GURL sis Vales dihipie vie 0 pce» cee 8

Rhodacmea rhodacme Walk., n. sp. (pl. 1, f. 1, 2, 8; pl. By Ra) isin pies ORAS Rete Woe ele ee oh Wkib his alelie ine bie

Bnoanemes. W alkor, 3s Wes sae side cisco ocisie beena hoe 5 Rnodaowmidrwins, ' ta. SAVERS» 5 5.5045 vin iets spade nekaSe n> 5 Rnocosephala ' Walker, 31, Bech. .s 0 see wsls spe elena lee 8 Sampson, Francis Asbury (obituary) ...............6. 137 Shells collected at Anaheim Bay and vicinity .......... 103 Pisaretus, bs ney Californian |. \.s). vee san xtc iinet ele othe 13 Sinum californicum Oldroyd, n. sp. ..........-+.2eee0- 13 Sonorella rooseveltiana Berry, n. sp. .......-...0ee00- 14 Spatha Kamerunensis Walker 5 « «5 ao .a's.0:0+.¥ cnoileee~ vile 77 SoA WHLDEIO FCPAUIRS ... ba ss fess ous, 's simp eB epee yas 77 Sphaeriidex, notes on reproduction and growth in certain. 16 Spnapruar or Oneida Lake Ml. Ys... 5 5'- ssls.0>s peep rene Strobilops labyrinthica texasiana Pils. & Ferr.......... 114 PRD ORPIGE, POULIN CLIEBE "cA 55s eG 60.8 noon be cee Sec poe a 93 Thysanophora caeca Guppy (pl. 8, £.3)...............- 75 Thysanophora dioscoricola C. B. Ads. (pl. 8, f. 2)....... 75 Thysanophora macneilli Clapp, n. sp. (pl. 8, f.1)....... 74 Prmehyoermon Lowel, 21.500, s\n). 5s bs so ee Fee pe tee 127 WR CHLOE TA TAUAS: 5\5..5 59 ened xcs ass dining SEA ole he ea ee 75 - Limo tétralasmus ‘Say (pl. 05: 2.4) «18 oe kines eae teen 49 imoenide ot Oneida Dake MW: i... secs bediea te eee 83 Unios, on the rate of growth of pond .................- 49 Vallonia cyclophorella septuagentaria Pils. & Ferr., n. POBEE NEN Stans eALERTS ENE ntnl bts v-eioc eo ace MEER TOT AVR SLR Re tehE aaa ene 95 Valvata tricarinata perconfusa Walker, n. n. ........ ‘es Val vecicee OF Oneida Linke, INN. cre atta ee oh wns shoe eka ee 89 Vitrea radiatula circumstriata Taylor ................ 115 Wavarrum. (8 POMPNBdO 0 i)o bs sye.tssosls » eis ieee wc eile eons 105 Vavineride of Oneida Wake, NY on. ol cineesntonpp ier 86 Viviparus malleatus and contectoides in Mass. ......... 107 Wralkerolat ‘Elamrnball oils: cs! 0% site v.08 Gibevo lai le stoves ee ee 2 Winkley, Rev. Henry W. (obituary) ............-e000- 136 Zaehrysia emarginata Pir. (p74. 7) Aise.>srine eh ae eee 79

Zachrysia ramsdeni Pils., n. sp. (pl. 7, f. 5,6) .......... 78

THE NAUTILUS. vil

INDEX TO AUTHORS.

eye TCT Et yd a a 2 81 pee eer a) Pet er Sa oo e/a, ow id casa sila oo d/o salen 144 EpemPpE RREEI SED nh eh) e a (eas) ds ow ew a alge ela alina'e 107 SOUS EL. LEST AR ae Reba ieee a te eee Ae 71 LE ts SA Bae leo Ck 14, 144 eemence WI MANOEL ERs Acr et 5 Sehr. a < dS ofa's. de cared awnete 99 eg Sen We tss dete Spee hl ss sets x see 37, 103 IRTP COR et re ae cia eis Se ss 4 dae tue 73 REE ET a el eek atid cao og 36, 108, 133 wD Sha sad or eA Bg 10, 12, 34, 93 Lo DISSES SEDGE a PA 31 2 TEAST La 6 Peg Be nih ee 47, 49 PUES: LU DS ae ee en 16 Pree ETT RO ie Ts a) sk thd Sia el nl de wale eee 2 137 2A 8 CTT 2 oS oe A 41 oD SETTERS GS Meteo SRC Paap ee Oe A 107, 186, 140 eee hin eis yey es as Cu eae SMe a ek 72 i /Tiys sy TU CARS Pe 9 ay eR Sen A Bae a 40 EE ATG 2 a 13 CE TIM CAS UB Pe PEP vO cena EY aE 95 Rie iaieemitt APO i 2 ose sha eg'e aos ic 08, 75, 78, 93, 99, 128 PSE EAE ADL Pro ance al vacua odin "ue ot 44, 50, 125 LEPTIN ad ot a ote 2) SUM ds sae eae 64 perp. Oalisaat DYER Ss i. able Sale os dec nteleeeaie 57, 105 LETS WEP Oo" ok © EN SAAT Sei ic EPA ee fa 71 URS EP UE Ree otras en rear ok eee) eee OS Coil. taal Ae 15 Dreger eA) o-oo ees ss casula kd cetais Aimtote nel) a/ar's 1, 35, 51, 53 Th Si SYS ON CR I SA PE Re CU arenes i Oe 109 PELL #01 5 ES Coy A RRA Ne Re ad 134

pol LOSSES EP RC SI le oe OL el ea LE 131

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THE NAUTILUS.

Vou. XXXI. JULY, 1917. No. 1

4& REVISION OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN PATELLIFORM ANCYLIDAE, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES.

BY BRYANT WALKER.

The North American patelliform species of Ancylidae can be conveniently and naturally arranged in eight genera and sub- genera according to their shell characters. These can again be grouped into three subfamilies characterized by the peculiarities of the radula and jaw.

It was hoped that a study of the soft anatomy might reveal other peculiarities co-ordinating with those of the radulae, and for that purpose with the kind assistance of correspondents in England, South Africa and this country a very considerable amount of alcoholic material, representing nearly all of the characteristic groups, was collected, some of which will be very difficult to replace. This material was placed in the hands of a distinguished zoologist, who undertook to work it up. After appropriating and using the material thus obtained, it was a matter of bitter disappointment, after having waited for three years for the completion of the work, reported from time to time to be in progress, to be informed by the gentleman that he should not proceed further with the work as he did not think that it would ‘‘ pay for the trouble considering the more impor- tant anatomical details that await study among other families of mollusks.”’

Under these circumstances the subfamilies represented in our

2 THE NAUTILUS.

fauna must for the present be based wholly upon the peculi- arities of the radula and jaw.

The arrangement of the Ancylidae proposed by Hannibal, (Pr. Mal. Soc. Lond., vol. x, 1912, p. 147), is not based upon any distinctions of systematic value. The genera and subgenera arranged under the different subfamilies are entirely heterogen- eous and in several instances genera and their subgenera appear in different subfamilies. The whole arrangement is absolutely futile and must be entirely disregarded.

The arrangement that I would propose is as follows:—

I. Subfamily Lancin%, Hannibal.

Jaw as in Lymnaea with two accessory plates. Radula also Lymnaeid in character. Central tooth unicuspid or tricuspid, laterals bicuspid with large quadrate bases, marginals comb- like, the cusps extending beyond the base.

This group was proposed, but without any definition, by Hannibal (Navt., vol. xxviii, 1914, p. 24).

Genus Lanx Clessin. Lanz Clessin, Con. Cab., Ancylinen, 1880, p. 10. Type, Ancylus newberryi Lea. Example, Lanz patelloides (hea)é » (Pl. 2,etigeak.

Subgenus Walkerola Hannibal. Walkerola Hannibal, Pr. Mal. Soc. Lond., X, 1912, p. 149. Type, Lanz ( Walkerola) klamathensis Hannibal, Pl. 2, fig. 2. Conchologically Walkerola appears to bear the same relation to. Lanz that Levaper does to Ferrissia.

Genus FisHEROLA Hannibal. Fisherola Hannibal, Pr. Mal. Soc. Lond., X, 1912, p. 151. Type, Fisherola lancides Hannibal. Nothing has been published on the soft anatomy. It is placed here on account of its size, shape and habitat.

II. Subfamily Ferrtssi1n=, n. subf.

Jaw segmented in plates. Radula with a bicuspid central, laterals obliquely reflected with from two to five small cusps.

THE NAUTILUS. |

arranged somewhat like the teeth of a comb, marginals also comb-like, cusps not (usually) extending to the basal line.

Genus Ferrissta Walker.

Ferrissia Walker, Naut., XVII, 1903, p. 15. Type, Ancylus rivularis Say. Pi. 2, fig. 3.

Subgenus Levapex Walker.

Levapex Walker, Naut., XVII, 1903, p. 15.

Type, Ancylus fuscus C. B. Adams. Example, Ferrissia (Levapex) diaphana (Hald.). Pl. 2, fig. 4.

For reasons stated elsewhere (Naut., XXVI, p. 117), I can not follow Hannibal in subordinating Ferrissia to Levaper. I agree fully with Gwatkin (J. of Con., XIV, 1914, p. 147), that Ferrissia represents the most primitive type of radula, so far as yet known, in the Ancylide. The world-wide distribution of the genus is evidence tending in the same direction. Levapex is restricted to America and is, to my mind, clearly an offshoot from the more ancient Ferrissia stock. In addition to its pecu- liar shell characters, there is some evidence tending to show a slight divergence also in the character of the lateral teeth, but hardly sufficient to justify its generic distinction.

Genus GuNDLACHIA Pfeiffer.

Gundlachia Pfeiffer, Zeitschr. fur Malak., VI, 1849, p. 98. ‘Type, Gundlachia ancyliformis Pfr. Pl. 3, fig. 1.

Poeyia Bgt., (1862), and Kincaidella Hann., (1912), are synonyms, being based on immature or non-septate stages, but the latter name may be retained for the group with striate apices.

Gundlachia, like Ferrissia, includes two groups characterized by the presence or absence of radial sculpture on the apex.

I have examined all of the described species except G. cre- pidulina Guppy from Trinidad and G. lucasi Suter from New Zealand.

Sub-genus Gwndlachia s. s.

Apex smooth, except for light concentric wrinkles. Type, Gundlachia ancyliformis Pfr., Cuba. The following species also belong in this group:

4 THE NAUTILUS.

G. bakeri Pils., Brazil; hinkleyi Walker, Guatemala and Ajal- marsoni Pfr., Honduras and Texas.

Sub-genus Kincaidella Hannibal.

Apex radially striate. , Kincaidella Hannibal, Pr. Mal. Soc., London, XII, 1912, p. 148. Type, Ancylus fragilis Tryon—Gundlachia californica

Row.

Californica Rowell, (March, 1865), has priority over fragilis Try., (June, 1863), if the date given by Binney, (L. and F. W. Sh., II, p. 149), is correct.

Kincaidella also includes the following species:

G. beddomei Pett. (MSS.), and petterdi John. from Tasmania; neozelanica Suter from New Zealand; U’hotelleriei ‘‘ Bgt.’’ Walker from Egypt; a species as yet undescribed from Cape Colony, S. Africa; californica Rowell, meekiana Stimpson, stimpsoniana 8. Smith and undetermined species from Starved Rock, Ill. and Mobile, Ala., from the United States.

The generic position of Ancylus woodsi John. from Tasmania would seem to be somewhat uncertain, (see Hedley, Navr., IX, p. 66), but, if not a Kincaidella, it is a Ferrissia, as the apex is radially striate.

It is interesting to notice that Gundlachia s. s. is apparently restricted to the countries bordering the Gulf of Mexico and seems to be a purely American group, similar to Levapex, while Kincaidella, like Ferrissia s. s., has a range extending quite around the globe. Ifa natural rather than an artificial system of nomenclature could be used, Kincaidella would represent the older and really typical group and Gundlachia s. s., as a more recent off-shoot from the original race, would become a sub- genus.

I have not seen Troschel’s description of the radula of G. ancyliformis mentioned by Hedley, (Naut., IX, p. 62). The radule of the three American species that have been figured, californica, meekiana and hinkleyi, are all very similar to each other and quite different from that of either Ferrissia or Leva- pex. That of G. neozelanica Suter as figured in T. N. Z., XXVI, pl. 14, fig. 5 is similar in the small number of cusps on the:

THE NAUTILUS. 5 side teeth, but differs in having them longer and sharper, those of the marginals extending beyond the base. This characteristic difference in the raduJa would seem to definitely establish the generic validity of the group.

III. Subfamily Ruopacmern», n. subf.

Jaw composed of numerous segmented plates. Radula with a long, slender central, unicuspid or faintly bicuspid, and with the base widely expanded in some species: the first lateral very large with an enormous mesocone, the blade-like cusp extend- ing beyond the base, the ectocone is back of the mesocone, en- tirely separated from it and has several small cusps; there is no endocone. The four laterals are similar in shape but diminish rapidly in size toward the margin, these are succeeded by two or three transition teeth, smaller and with more or less imper- fect cusps. The marginals are very small, rapidly decreasing in size toward the outer edge, with large quadrate bases, wider than high, vestigial, the cusps being nearly, if not quite, obsolete.

The rows of teeth are more or less V-shaped and with the immense laterals and minute marginals present a remarkable appearence quite unlike any other group belonging to the family.

Gwatkin, (J. of Con., XIV, 1914, p. 147), has already com- mented upon the resemblance of the radula to that of Brachypo- della.

All of the species known to belong to this group have the apex of the shell tinged with pink.

Genus RHODACMEA, DN. g.

Shell patelliform, conical, elevated or depressed, apex tinged with pink. Radulaand jawasinthe subfamily. Soft anatomy otherwise unknown.

Type, Ancylus filosus Conrad. Pl. 3, fig. 2.

The species belonging to this genus are not confined to the Coosa drainage as Gwatkin supposed, but are also found in both the Tennessee and Ohio systems.

As in Lanz and Ferrissia, two well marked groups are repre-

6 THE NAUTILUS.

sented in this genus, the one with an elevated and the other with a depressed shell.

Section Rhodacmea, s. 8.

Shell elevated. Radula with a unicuspid central, which has the base triangularly expanded; laterals with the cusp of the mesocone extending but little beyond the base and not over- lapping the base of the central tooth.

Type, Ancylus filosus Conrad.

I. Reopacmea Fritosa (Conrad).

Ancylus filosa Conrad, F. W. Shells, 1834, p. 57.

When I wrote of this species in 1904, (Naut., XVIII, p. 75) I had not seen any specimens from the Black Warrior River, Conrad’s original locality. The specimens then before me as was stated, were not typical in that they lacked the ‘‘ numerous, radiating, prominent lines’’ described by Conrad. Since that time a considerable amount of additional material has been received from Mr. H. H. Smith, which fully confirms the origi- nal diagnosis. One set from the Black Rock Shoals of the Black Warrior River are rather thin, of a light translucent green color with the apex tinged with rose and are very strongly radi-. ately striate, the ribs extending from the apex to the periphery. The largest specimen measures 4.25 x 3x2 mm. These shells are undoubtedly typical.

Similar specimens are before me from the Coosa River from several localities, viz., two miles above Coosa Valley, St. Clair Co.; Ten’ Island Shoal near Lock no. 2; Leota Shoal; Three Island Shoal, Wilsonville, Shelby Co.; and Vincent Shoal, two miles above Upper Clear Creek. Also from Tallassahatchee Creek, four miles east of Childersburg; Beaver Creek at Greens- port and Canoe Creek.

All the shells from these localities are quite typical in form, but are uniformly thicker and more heavily striated than the Black Warrior specimens. This heavily striated form seems to be the characteristic expression of the species in the Coosa and its tributaries. The Cahawba River specimens from Lewis and Call mentioned in my former paper, while lacking the strong

THE NAUTILUS. 7

Tadial striae, are in texture and shape like the typical shells from the Black Warrior. While this smoother form quite probably represents a local race worthy of recognition, as it has not been found by more recent collectors and no exact localities for it are known, it hardly seems advisable to do more than to call attention to its peculiarities until more definite information as to its precise range can be had.

RHODACMEA CAHAWBENSIS, n. sp. Pi. I, figs. 4-6.

Ancylus filosus Walker, Naut., XVIII, 1904, p. 76, pl. vi, figs. 1-6.

Shell elevated, obtusely conical, broad oval, somewhat wider behind the apex than before it; apex obtuse, siightly behind the longitudinal centre of the shell, scarcely, if at all, turned toward the right side, apical sculpture entirely eroded in all specimens seen; yellow horn color slightly tinged with green, apex rose color; anterior slope convex toward the apex, straighter below; posterior slope nearly rectilinear; lateral slopes slightly convex, the left. being more oblique than the right; lines of growth strong and irregular, slightly rippled by radial lines, which sometimes become obsolete radial striez.

Length 4.5; width 3.5; alt. 2.5 mm.

Types, (no. 43453 Coll. Walker), from the Cahawba River, Gurnee, Shelby Co., Ala., collected by H. H. Smith. Cotypes in the collections of the Acad. of Nat. Science, Philadelphia, George H. Clapp and John B. Henderson. Also from Cahatchee Creek and Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby Co., Ala. The single specimen from the latter locality shows subobsolete radial stria- tion very much like the ‘‘ Coosa River’’ specimens in the Lewis collection which in my former paper I referred to jilosa, but which I now think belong to this species. The fact that the heavily striated jilosa is quite characteristic of the Coosa, where this species has not been found by Mr. Smith in his extensive collections, makes me doubt whether the Lewis shells really did come from the Coosa itself. Unfortunately no exact locality is given by Lewis and the question must remain undetermined.

This species is more closely related to the elatior Anth. of the Tennessee drainage than to any of the known species of the

38 THE NAUTILUS.

Alabama system. Compared with that, it is smaller, narrower, with a more obtuse apex, the posterior slope is straight and not convex and the lateral slopes less oblique than in that species. The tinted apical area seems smaller than in the other species of the genus and is frequently lost entirely from erosion. The radula has not yet been examined,

RHODACMEA ELATIOR (Anthony).

Ancylus elatior Anthony, Ann. N. Y. Lyc., VI, 1855, p. 158, pl. v, fig. 20.

No additional information in regard to this species can be given at this time except that the radula of a specimen from the Tennessee River at Florence, Ala., collected by Hinkley agrees with that of jilosa in the characters of the central and lateral teeth. A very considerable collection from the Tennes- see made by Mr. H. H. Smith has not yet been worked over and may add materially to our knowledge of the species when critically examined.

RHODACMEA HINKLEYI (Walker).

Ancylus (Ferrissia) hinkleyi Walker, Naut., XXI, 1908, p. 139, pl. Ix, figs. 11-13.

The species listed from the Tennessee River at Florence, Ala., . as ‘‘ Ancylus rhodaceus Walker’’ by Hinkley in 1906, (Nauvrt. XX, p. 40), but not described, is the same as that subsequently described under this name in 1908. The radula of the Tennes- see River specimens agrees with those of jilosa and elatior in sectional eharacters.

Section Rhodocephala, n. sect.

Shell depressed. Radula with a faintly bicuspid central which has the sides of the base straight and not expanded; laterals with the cusp of the mesocone extending far beyond the base and overlapping the base of the central tooth.

Type Rhodacmea rhodacme Walker.

RHODACMEA RHODACME, n. sp. PI. I, figs. 1, 2 and 8. Shell depressed, conical, obovate, the greatest width being

THE NAUTILUS. 9

just behind the apex, apex subcentral, only slightly behind the centre, obliquely elevated, acute, spine-like, somewhat turned toward the right side, finely radially striate, apical depression small, oval and situated on the left side of the tip of the apex; pale green with the apical region deeply tinged with rose color; anterior stope very slightly convex; posterior slope oblique and nearly rectilinear below the base of the apex; lateral slopes slightly convex and about equally oblique; growth lines regular, fine and distinct, the apical striae extend down over the upper part of the shell giving a shagreened appearance to the surface as they intersect the growth lines, but become mere ripples toward the margin.

Length 5.25, width 4, alt. 1.25 mm.

Types, (No. 20371 Coll. Walker), from the Coosa River at Williamsville, Shelby Co., Ala., collected by A. A. Hinkley. Cotypes in the collection of Mr. Hinkley. Also from the Coosa River above Wetumpka (Hinkley) and at Leota Shoals; Fort William Shoals; Shoal two miles above Coosa Valley; Vincent Shoal two miles: above Upper Clear Creek and Peckerwood Shoals (H. H. Smith).

All of the Smith shells were found on or under stones, which is apparently the usual habitat of the species, differing in this respect from filosa, which is almost invariably found on living Pleuroceride.

I have adopted for this species the very appropriate name suggested by Dr. Pilsbry soon after its discovery.

The peculiar depressed shell of rhodacme with its spine-like apex and characteristic radula differentiate it very sharply from the species included under Rhodacmea s..s. and justifies the establishment of a special section for it and similar species.

RHODACMEA GWATKINIANA, n. sp. PI. I, figs. 8, 7 and 9.

Shell rather small, depressed conic, oval; apex nearly cen- tral, somewhat turned to the right, acute and spine-like, finely radially striate; apple-green with the apex tinted with old-rose color; anterior slope slightly convex; posterior slope oblique and nearly straight below the projecting apex; lateral slopes straight below the base of the apex and equally oblique; growth

10 THE NAUTILUS.

lines rather coarse and irregular, the entire surface covered with low, coarse, rather distant radial striae extending to the edges.

Length 3.5, width 2.5, alt. 1 mm.

Types, (No. 43454 Coll. Walker), from Butting Ram Shoals, Coosa Co., Ala., collected by H. H. Smith. Cotypes in the collections of T. H. Aldrich, George H. Clapp and John B. Henderson.

All of the specimens were found on living Pleuroceride.

This beautiful little species, which groups with rhodacme in its depressed shape and spine-like apex as well as in its radular characteristics, differs from it in its small size, more regularly oval shape and the greater development of radial strize over the surface.

It is named in remembrance of the late Rev. Prof. H. M. Gwatkin of Cambridge, England, to whom I am indebted for practically all of the radula preparations used in this paper and who was the first to observe and point out the remarkable char- acter of the radula in the different species of the genus.

I am indebted to Dr. Pilsbry for the slide representing the radula of Lanx patelloides. All of the other radule figured were prepared by Prof. Gwatkin, and all of the figures were

drawn by Mrs. Lydia M. H. Green formerly connected with the. .

U. S. National Museum.

A NEW SPECIES OF ASTARTE FROM ALASKA.

BY WILLIAM HEALEY DALL.

In 1865 Dr. Philip Carpenter described from a single speci- men a species of Astarte from Puget Sound, to which he gave the specific name of compacta. This type remains in the collec- tion of the National Museum as number 4509.

This species has remained extremely rare, only three or four others, some eroded and doubtful, have come to hand during

the half-century which has passed. This is probably due to. the fact that the right locality had not been dredged, for the-

THE NAUTILUS. Hy

species of this genus are usually very abundant in their chosen places.

Recently Mr. G. Willett, warden of the Forrester Island res- ervation in southern Alaska, has succeeded in getting an excel- lent shell-collection at this isolated spot; among the shells thus obtained was a good series of Astarte compacta. With this, and for a time confused with the latter, is what seems to be a new species of Astarte, which Mr. Willett in arranging his collection was the first to discriminate. He had the kindness to send me his fine mounted series of both species for examination, the re- sult of which is not only that a new species is identified, but it is shown that A. compacta as well as the new form belong to the typical section of the genus, both forming at intervals cren- ulation of the inner margin of the valves. The only specimens of A. compacta previously available happened to be in the stage without crenulations.

The new form is best described by a comparative diagnosis.

ASTARTE WILLETTI, 0. sp.

Shell small, of a yellowish-brown externally, milk-white in- ternally ; the external sculpture of small concentric waves is more regular and constant than in compacta ; the form is more oval and the beaks more anterior than in that species, and wil- letti appears to attain a larger size. In compacta the lunule is relatively narrower and longer than in the new species. In the interior the hinge of the latter is better developed than in com- pacta, all three teeth being usually represented, while in com- pacta the posterior and particularly the anterior cardinal is fre- quently obsolete or absent. The shell substance of A. compacta is more translucent and bluish, and the crenulations of the valve margin when present are distinctly smaller and less conspicu- ous than in willetti.

The measurements of two forms are as follows, the largest specimen of a series of some twenty-five specimens being selected in each case.

Height. Length. Diameter. A. willetti 14 16 8 mm. A. compacta 12 12 6 mm.

12 THE NAUTILUS.

The specimens were dredged in about 50 fathoms. The um- bones in A. willetti are 6.0 mm. behind the anterior end of the shell; 4n A. compacta about 5.5 mm., the result being that the latter has a more triangular outline. The type of A. willett? is number 216364 of the catalogue of mollusks of the U. S. Na- tional Museum.

NOTES ON BOREAL LAND AND FRESHWATER SHELLS.

BY WM. H. DAULL.

The National Museum has received a small lot of fresh-water shells from Dr. T. E. Winecoff, stationed at Fort Yukon, Alaska, nearly on the Arctic circle, which are of more than ordinary interest. They were collected from a small pond near the fort and the large Lymnaea abounded in such numbers as to give a pinkish tint to the water in which they were, accord- ing to the collector. The species are:

Lymnaea appressa Say, rather small for the species, and of a brownish tint not unlike the usual color of L. palustris.

Iymnaea palustris Miller. Ordinary type and size.

Lymnaea emarginata mighelsii Binney. Not known so far northwest.

Planorbis trivolvis Say, medium size, abundant.

Planorbis crista Linné, one specimen. Nearest known locality is Carberry, Manitoba.

Pisidium vesiculare Sterki, one specimen.

During a cruise in Bering Sea last summer, Mr. G. Dallas Hanna touched at St. Mathew Island in the northern part of Bering Sea. From small ponds in the island he obtained the following species:

Aplexa hypnorum Linné.

Planorbis parvus Say.

Valvata mergella Westerlund.

Pisidiwm scutellatum? Sterki.

Succinea chrysis Westerlund.

THE NAUTILUS. 13

Several times during the last few years I have received the two forest snails Polygyra columbiana and Circinaria vancouver- ensis from Unalashka. At first I felt confident that some error had occured in labeling, as during my visits at that locality, 1871 to 1880, there was no grove or forest to shelter them and assiduous collecting failed to reveal their presence. However, in 1899 I found the transplanted Sitka spruce planted on one or two of the islets in the bay had made an extraordinary growth, and as these snails are always associated with the spruce and fresh specimens have been lately received from the