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By Τ Η Ο Μ A S S Η A W, D. D.

Fellow of Queen's-College in Oxford, and F. R. S.


Printed at the Theatre, MDCCXXXVIII.



Ν ADAMS 3>'/ η¥*^ ί' ^Λή^ν^ Λ



Vicc-Cancell. Oxon. ^pr, xs. 1738.

τ ο τ Η Ε


Μοβ Gracious Sovereign^

Beg Leave to approach Tour RoyalTerfon, with an humble Prefent in my Hand, . after the Falhion of thofe Countries, where I have long refided. It is a Volume of Travels and Ohfervations ; wherein are defcribed the Situation,

Polity, andCuftoms of various Nations; Nations

unacquainted with Liberty, and whofe Government is


The Dedication.

the very Reverie of Tour ^JMajefiy's wife and gracious Adminiftration.

I had an Opportunity of making Thefe Ohferva- tions, whilft 1 had the Honour of being Tour Majeflys Chaplain at <^lgiers. It was in this Situation, that I firft colleoted Materials for the following Sheets ; and fo extenfive is Tour Majeftys Influence, that it procured me Safety and ProtecSion, even in Countries remote and barbarous.

A Work, which owes it's Rife, it's Progrefs, and Completion to thefe Aflifl:ances, feems in fome De- gree entitled to Tour Royal Favour , and is there- fore with all Humility prefented to Tour Sacred CMajefly.

Whilft I was engaged in this Undertaking, it was a pleafmg Encouragement to confider, that my well-intended Labours were approved by Her Late CMajefty ; and it did not a little enflame my Endea- vours, w^hen She was pleafed to promife me the Ho- nour οι Her RoyalTatronage,

But I muft not prefume to mention private and perfonal Favours, ψ\\^ϊ\ Whole Societies are indebted to That lUuflrious Vrincefs, Particularly, That An^ tient Houfe of Learning (of which I have the Happineis to be a Member,) ftands diftinguiih'd by Her Royal


The Dedication.

Bounty, and owes it's Beauty and Ornament to Her ^JMunificence.

If Heaven had fpared that invakiable Life, with what Zeal iliould we have paid repeated Acknow- ledgments to our Royal Benefacirefs ! But now We

can only joyn with Thoufands in lamenting the Puhlick Lofs , and with Gratitude tranfmit Her ^JMemory to our latefl: Succeflbrs.

That Providence may long preferve Tour ^JMa- jefly, and continue the many Bleflings of Tour Reign to This Church and Nation, is the conftant Prayer of,

May it pleafe Your Majesty, Your Majesty's Moll Humble

And Moil Devoted

Servant and Subjed,




Η Ε following Ohfervations are prefented to the Reader, as an Effay towards rejioring the an- tient Geography, and placing in a proper Light the Natural Htftory ofthofe Countries, where the author has traveUed. In purfuance of which Defign, the Geographical and Phyfical Oh- fervations, are not blended and mixed together , as they chanced to fall in his Way \ hut are ranged under di- ftincl Heads , without repeating at every Turn and upon every Occafion, the Time, Ψ lace , or Manner, wherein they were made. However, as the Method of furveying thefe Countries', the Diet and Reception of the Traveller; the Hardj^ips and Dangers to which he is expojed", with other Incidents of the like Nature, may be thought Matter of too great Curiofity to be paffed over in Silence-, the author propofes to fupply, all that may be wanting upon that Suhjecl, by giving the Reader, in one View i


fuch material Circumflances and Occurrences , as might have made up the Diary-Part of His Travels,

The Reader therefore is to he informed^ that in the /eve- ral maritime Towns of Barbary and the Levant^ where the Britifli Factories are eftahlifloed, I was entertained with extraordinary Marks of Generofity and Friendjhip ; having the Ufe not only of their Houfes, hut of their Horjes alfoy their ^z.m'S2iX\t'?> and Servants. ^.My heft. Acknow- ledgments therefore are due, upon this Account^ to the worthy Gentlemen, Mr. Conful C^rcw and his Brother, at Tripoly in Syria; to the late Meffteurs Thomas Ufgate and French, and to Mr. John Ufgate, at Acre ; to the late Mr. Conful Mooi'Q and his Deputy Mr. Damarel at Kur ο ^;/^ Alexandria ; to CMeJ/ieurs L•^wrencQ andliudion, the Britilh and Dutch Confuls, at Tunis ; and to Mr. Edward Holden, my generous Friend and Benefactor du- ring the twelveTears Irefided at Algiers. lam indehted like wife to fever al Gentlemen of the French Nation, for many In/lances of their Civility and Politenefs ', particular- ly to the Merchants fettled at JaiFah and Ramah ; to Mr, Salve, Agent to the African Company at Bona; and to Mr. Fort the Governour of La Calle.

In the Inland Towns and ViUages o/ Barbary, there is, for the moil• Part, a Houfe fet apart for the Recep- tion of Strangers , with a proper Officer ( the Maharak, I think they call him) to attend it. HerePerfons are lodged and entertained , for one Night , in the heft Manner the Place will afford, at the Expence of the Community.

Except at thefe and the Places ahove-mentioned, I met with no Khan η s ' or Houfes of Entertainment through- out the whole Courfe of my Travels. Tofurnifh our f elves with Tents, would have heen hoth cumherfome and ex pen five ; hefides the Sufpicion it might have raifed in the Arabs, that we were Perfons of Rank and Fortune, and confequently too rich and tempting a Booty to he fuffered to efcape. Ihe unfortunate Gentlemen, who were concerned, not many Tears

I Vid. Pref. Not. p. iv.


ago, in an Emhaffy to Abyffinia, found This to he true at the Expence of their Lives \

If therefore in the Courfe of our travelling uue did not faU in vjith the Hovels of the Kabyles, or the Encampments of the Arabs , we had nothing to protect lis from the In- clemency either of the Heat of the 'hay, or the Cold of the Night, unlefs we met with fome accidental Grove of Trees, the Shelve of a Rock, or fometimes, hy good Fortune, a Grotto, ^t thefe Times, which indeed dtdfeldom happen, our Horfes were the greatefi Sufferers : and as they were al- ways our fir β Care, we gathered for them Stuhhle, Grafs, Boughs of Trees, and fuch like Provender, before we fat down and examined what Fragments, of fome former Meal, were referved for ourfelves.

In travelling fromi^^iixo to Mount Sinai, the Heavens were every Night our only Covering ; the Sand, fpread over with a Carpet, was our Bed; and a Change of Raiment, made up into a Bundle, our Tillow. Our Camels {for Horfes or Mules require too much Water to he employed in thefe Defer ts) were made to lye round m in a Circle, with their Faces looking from m, and their refpeBive Loads and Saddles placed behind them. In this Situation, theyferved m

I Nothing can give the Reader a more lively Pifture of the jealous and infolent Beha- viour of the Arabs, when they are Mailers, than the following Account, which Mr. Lippi, thePhyfician to the EmbaiTy, gives of the Nubians, a little before this Maflacre is fuppoled to have happened. The Letter, which ispreferved among other Papers of that unfortunate Gentleman, in the Shcrardian Library, is direded to Mi. Fagon, firil Phyfician to thcFrencb King, and dated from Korty in Nubia, Mar. 8. 170J. Les bruits, Monfieur, qu'on a repandu de nous, des le Caire, out fait un tel progres qu'il femble que I'Enfer η a pu rien inventer de pis. II y a plus de 4 mois que nous fommes en Nubie I'objet de la fureur des pcuples. Ainfi nous faifons un fort mauvais fang apres les immenfes fatigues du defert. On attendoit un autre fort fur les Etats d'tin Roy, vers le quel on va. On croyoit qu'en ecrivant des Lettres, ce Prince les receveroit, mais le Commandant du pays les a toutes retenues pour avoir occafion de nous ronger. Tout nek icy que inifere et convoitife infatiable : pcrfonne η eft bonteuz. de demander encore, et ce avec infolence. U faudroit donner a tout le monde, et rien moins que des habits. La Tente eft tous les jours environnee d'unefoule de canaille noire, armee de lances, et mal peignee; dont on ne voit que les jeux et les dents, qu'ils montrent moitie de rage et moitie par etonnement. He, dirent ils, ces gens font etendus fur des lits comme nos Roys, et nous refterons nuds? toujour s lire, toujour s ecrire, chercher des herbes et des arbres que I'on feche dans du papier pour les enfertner, choifer une pierre entre mtlle et charger des chameaux de toutes ces chafes ? qui a jamais veu cela ? On a bien raifon de dire que ces me- cbants hommes vont fecher 7iotre Nil, ou I'empoifonner pour nous perdre. A quoi tient-il maintenant qu'on ne sen dejaife? *** Jugez., Monfieur, de ce que j'ay pu faire. J'etois reduit aparcotirir des yeux les environs de la Tente, ou je protivois le fort de Tantale. Je nay pu confier tout mon travail a, (ette occafion ; fay tr anfmisfeulement les nouveaux genres, tels que je les ay d'abord mis fur le papier, dans etat d'alarme, detroubIe,et delangueur. Bonnes ou mauvaifes que foient cespetites obfer^ yations/ofe, Monfieur, vous les prefenttr ; t'eft vous qui me domes les forces, ou la temerit^ de les faire. Je fuis &c.

a, 2 as


ίν theprefAce.

as β many Guards^ being watchful Aiimals, and awaking with the Leafl Noife.

c/^J" there was no Chance of meeting, in thefe long and dreery Deferts, with the leafl Hofpitality or Entertainment , we were obliged to carry along with us all Things neceffary for fo long and tedious a Journey. We took Care, in the fir Η Tlace, to provide ourf elves with a fufficient Si^antity of Goats Skins, which we filled with Water, every four or five Days, or as often as we found it. Barley, with a few Beans intermixed ; or elfe the Flour of one or other qf them , made into Balls, was the Provender we laid in for our Camels. We provided for ourfelves JVheat-Flourj Bifcuit, Honey, Oyl, Vinegar, Olives, Lentils, potted Flefh^ andfuch Things as would keep, during two Months, the Space commonly taken up in compleating thn Journey. Nor fhould the Wooden Bajon or Copper Vot be forgotten, that made up our Kitchen Furniture ; the latter whereof was the neceffary Utenfil for cooking our Trovifion , the other for ferving it up, or kneading our unleavened Cakes,

When we were either to boyl or bake, the Camels Dung that wefound left by fome preceeding Caravan ^ was our com- mon Fuel ; which, after it has been expofed a Day or two in the Sun, catches Fire like Touchwood, and burns as bright as Charcoal Nofooner was our Food prepared, (whether it was potted Flefh, boyled with Rice', a Lentil Soup', or un- leavened Cakes, ferved up with Oyl or Honey ;) than one of the Arabs, after having placed himfelf upon the higheH Station he could find, invites three Times ^ with a loud Voice , all his Brethren:, The Sons of the Faithful, to come and partake of it ; though none of them were in View, or perhaps within a hundred Miles of m. This Cuflom however they maintain to be always a Token of their

I Vox Perfica eft ^Ji^jW Ckv^n, id eft. Negotiator, vel colledlive Negotiatores ; ic. tota eorum Cohors fimul iter faciens, quae Arabic^ u.i»\.j CafiU vocatur. Hinc Mercatorum Hofpitia publica qua: Arabibus audiunt ^^\.i. Can, Perfis ^)^^ u^rj^ Carvan Serai nomi- aantur, i. e. Caravana hofpitium. Nam Serai eft quaevis Donms ampla j unde in Conftanti- nopoli, Iroperatoris Palatium foeminarum Turds dicitur nomine Pcrfico Serai, Europiis rainn%\>znQ Serail&c Seraglio. Via. Perit. Itiijera Mundi. Ed. T. Hjde, p. tfi.



great Benevolence, m it "would he of their Hofpitality like- njuije, if they had an Opportunity tofljeiv it.

When we are fo fortunate, in travelling in Barbarv, to

find out the Encampments of the Arabs^ {for we are not

fond of vifitmg the Kabyles, who are notfo eafily managed, )

we are entertained, jor one Night, upon free Cofl -. the

A ra bs, either by long Cuflom, the particular Tenure of their

Lands, or rather perhaps from Fear and Compulfion, being

obliged to give the Spahees, and thofe who are with them^

the Mounah, f^-^r^) as they call it^ which is a fufficient

§^iantity of Provifions for them f elves and their Horfes. Be-

fides a Bowlof Miik, and a Basket of Figs, Raifins, Dates ^

or other dryed Fruit , which wereprefentedto its upon ourAr^

rival, the Μ after of the Tent, where we lodged, fetcht us

from his Flock, [according to the Number of our Company) a

Kid, or a Goat ; a Lamb, or a Sheep ; half of which was

immediately feethed by his Wife, andferved up with Cufca-

fovve ; the reft, was ufually madeKdh-^h \ and referved

for our Breakfaβ or Dinner the next Day.

However, the Tents ofthefe roving tier df men , though they may ft?elter us from the Weather, arenotwithftanding attend- ed with their Inconveniences. For the Cold, and the Dews that we are every Night expofedto, in the Deferts (^/Arabia, do not incommode m half f ο much as the Vermin and Infers of allKinds, which never fail to molefl t^s here. Befides Fleas and Lice, which, without a Miracle, are here in all their Quar- ters, the Apprehenfioyis we are under y of being bit or flung by the Scorpion, l^iper, or Venemous -Spider , rarely fails, infome Farts of the je Countries, to interrupt theReft, that is f ο grate- ful and necejfary to a weary Traveller. Upon Sight indeed of one or other of thefe veyiemousBeafts, ^Thaleb (9r Writer, who happened to be one of my Spahees, after he had muttered afew Words, exhorted us all to take Courage, and not be afraid of fuch Creatures, as he had made tame and harmlefs, by his Charms and Incantations. We are Ukewife no lefs of- fended [from whence we might lea ft expect it) by their Kids,

I c-'V^' i. e. cut into Chops and roafted.

b Calves^



Cakes, and other yomgCattky that are tied up, every Night, wider the Eaves of their Tents, toprevent them from fuck- ing their Dams. For the Cords that are ufed upon thefe Oc- cafions, being only made ofloojefpun Tarn , the fretful Crea- tures are every Moment breaking loofe, and trampling over us. When our Company was at any Time entertained in a courteous Manner, (for the Arabs will fometimes part with nothing 'till it be extorted by Force) I ufed to give the Mafter of the Tent a Knife, a Couple of Flints, or afmall ^antity (^/Engiifli Gunpowder-, which, being muchflronger than their own, they have in great Efleem, and keep for the priming only of their Fire-Arms If the Lallah {or Lady) his Wife had been obliging alfo in her Way, by making our Cufcafovve favoury and with Expedition, She would return a thoufand Thanks for a Skean oj Thread \ a large Needle ; or a Fair of Sciffars ; all of them great Rarities, and very engaging Frefents with thefe People.

During the exceffive Heats of the Summer, a?id efpectally when we were apprehenfive oj being intercepted byfome Tar- ty offree-bootingkv2ihs,we then travelled in the Night ;which having no Eyes, according to their Proverb, few of them dare then venture out, as not blowing the Dangers and Am- huf cades, they may poffibly jail into. It is at this Time we have frequent Opportunities of calling to Remembrance the Words of the Pfalmift, Ff 105. 2. Thou makefl: Dark- nefs that it may be Night; wherein all the Beafts of the Foreft do move. The Lyons roaring after their Prey; the Leopards, Hysenas, and a T/^ariety of other ra- venous Creatures, calling to and anjwering each other, (the different Sexes perhaps, by this Means, finding out and cor - ref ponding with their Mates) break in very awfully upon the Solitude, and Safety like wife, that we might promife to our- Jelves, in travelling at this Seafon.

Our Stages or Days Journeys were not always the fame. For when any Danger was apprehended, we then travelled through as many By-paths, as our Conduciors were acquaint- ed with ; ridingy in this Manner, without refling, fome- times


times tzvehe, fome times fifteen Hours together. Nay, in returning from jerufalem, [Jo vigilant were the Arabs at that Time in di/ir effing the Tilgrims,) that notwith- flanding we had the Sheck [or Saint) of Mount Carmel, with tvjenty of his Servants toprotecl us, we refted only one Hour in two and twenty : for fo long we made it in tra- velling betwixt Sichcm and CMount Carmel. But in the Kingdoms of Algiers and Tunis, an ordinary Days Journey, {exclufive of the Time taken up in making Obfer- vations,) rarely exceeded eight or nine Hours, Ourccnflant Traciice was, to rife at Break of Day, fet forward with the Sun, and travel till the Middle of the Afternoon ; at which Time we began to look out for the Encampments of the Arabs ; who , to prevent fuch Parties as Ours from living upon them, take Care to pitch in Places the lea ft confpicuoiis, ^nd indeed fometimes , unlefs we difcovered the Smoke of their Tents, obferved fome of their Flocks, or heard the barking of their Dogs, it wa^ with Difficulty (if at all) that we were able to find them. Here, as I obferved before, we were ac- commodated with Lodgings and Provifions far that Night ; and if in theCourfe of our Travelling the next Day, as the Poet exprejjes it,

We chance to find

A newRepail, or an untafted Spring;

We blefs our Stars, and think it Luxury. In travellmg along the CoaH of Syria, and from Suez to Mount Sinai, we run little or no Rifque of being either robbed or infulted, provided we keep Company with theCz- ravan, and do not flray from it. But a Neglect of this Kind, through the great Eagernefs a Traveller may have in looking after Plants and other Curiofities , will expofe him, as it once did myfelf, to great Danger, In the Holy Land, and upon the li Ihmus betwixt Egypt and the Red Sea, our Conductors cannot be too numerous ; whole Clans, from fifty to five Hundred, being fometimes looking out for a Boo- ty, This was the Cafe of our Caravan, in travelling (A .P. i722.)/ri>w Ramah /i? Jerufalem ; where four Bands

b 2 (f




of Turki{h Soldiers, with the Mofoltm or General at the Head of them, were not able, or durH not at leafl protect us, againft the repeated Infults and Ravages of the


But in Barbary, where the Arabs are more under Suhjeciion, I rarely carried along with me more than three Spahees, and a Servant ; all of m well armed : though we were Sometimes obliged to augment our Numbers, par- ticularly when we travelled among the independent Arabs, upon the Frontiers of the neighbouring Kingdoms, or where two contiguous Clans were at Variance. Thefe, and fuch like (c3-V-) Harammeej, as the Free-booters are ufually called, mufl be, I conjecture, what the Europeans mean by Wild Arabs; notwithβanding there is no fuch Name peculiar to any one Body of them \ they being all of them the fame, and have all the like Inclinations, {whenever a proper Opportunity or Temptation offers itfelf,) of rob- bing, fir ipping, and murthering, not Strangers only, but alfa

one another.

However, to prevent as much as poffible the falling into their Hands, the greatejl Safety for a Traveller, at all Times, ίδ to be difguifed in the Habit of the Country, or drejfed like one of his Spahees. For the Arabs are very jealous and inquifitive ; fuf peeling all Strangers to be Spies, andjent to take a Survey of thofe Lands, which, at one Time or other, {as they have been taught to fear,) are to be reflored to the Chriftians.

The Horfes and Camels of thefe Countries keep generally

one conHant Ψ ace ; the latter at the Rate of two Miles and

an half, the other of three Geographical Miles an Hour.

Sixty of thefe, according to my Calculation, conflitute one

Degree of a great Circle. The Space we travelled was

firfl of all computed by Hours, and then reduced into Miles.

Every Evening therefore , as foon as we arrived at our

Connack, {for fo the Spahees call the Tents or Places

where we put up) I ufed to examine how many Hours and

in what Dire^ion we had travelled that T>ay making proper



Allowances for the fever al Windings and occafional Devia- tions that were made out of the direct Road. In our Pajfage through the Mountains andForefis., or where thePlains were cut through with Rivers, [for we met with no Inclofures any where to mole/i us) it frequently happened, that when we had travelled eight Hours, i.e. twenty four Miles, I found, by the Method above, that, as far as Longitude or Lati- tude were concerned, they were to be climated for no more than twenty or eighteen, ^s often alfo as I had an Oppor- tunity, I took the Meridian Altitude, with aBrafs ^adrant of twelve Inches Radius, which wasfo well graduated, that I could diflinguifh the Divifion upon the Limb to at leaH one 12'^ Part of a Degree. (This Operation the Arabs call The weighing of the Sun.) Towards the further carry- ing on likewije of theje Geographical Obfer vat ions, I had a Pocket Compafs, with the Needle well touched; the Varia- tion whereof was, at a Mean, in the Kingdom of Algiers, (A D.I 727.) fourteen Degrees, to the TVefiward, and in the Kingdom of Tumsfxteen ; to which in like Manner I paid a proper Regard, in laying down the Maps and Geo^ graphical Obfervations.

The fever al Degrees of Longitude, that are marked in the Maps of the Kingdoms «?/ Algiers and Tunis, have London for their fir ft Meridian. The Middle of the Ecltpfe of the Moon, (July 28. 1729.) being obferved by Mr.Profeffor Bradley, to fall out ^iWanfted at i ^^ o'. i i'. apparent Time \ and by the French Miffionaries, and my- felf, at Algiers, at \if\ \ 4' [proper Allowances being made for the Difference of the Meridians i>/Wanfted and London) willfituate Algiers, at ^ 2'. ^o" Εαβ of the latter ; or a few Minutes only more Weflerly , than it is laid down in the Maps and Globes of Mr. Senex.

The prickt, or double Lines that are traced out upon the Maps, fhew the Places, they ρ afs through, to be laid down according to my own Obfervations. Mr. Sanfon, an un- fortunate Surgeon and Native of Holland, who hath many Tears attended the Viceroy of Qou^2iWUty^ as his Slave, hath

c fup-



fupplyed me with a great many Remarks, concerning the Geography of That Province.

The Civil War 'which raged in the Kingdom i*/ Tunis, when I was there, (in the Tear 1727.) prevented me from

feeing the Frigeah, as they call the TVeflern Tart of the an- tient Zeugitania. lam indebted therefore for the Infcrip- tions and the Geographical Ohfervations of thofe Tarts to Father Francifco Ximenes, the Spaniih Admini/irador at Tunis.

The curious Mr. Bernard Juffeau, Brother to the Pro-

fefjor of that Name at Paris, gave me Liberty to copy the Infcriptions, which relate to Lambefe, from the ^JMa- mifcript of Dr. PoiiTonel, who lately travelled over a great Part of thefe Kingdoms , at the Expence of the French King. Thefe indeed, and fever al other Infcriptions, deferve to be particularly confidered', but I had not Leifure at this Time to profecute fo laborious an Undertaking.

The Provinces of Zaab, Wadreag, and other Southern Diflricts of the Kingdom ^f Algiers, are laid down from the repeated Accounts, which 1 had of thofe Places, from the Natives themf elves. TVe have frequent Opportunities of converfing with a Number of Per fins of thefe different Coun- tries, in almofl every City of Barbary ; and as I rarely found them dif agree in their Accounts, 1 am perfwaded that I have been very little, if at all, impojed upon by them. There was no other JVay at leafl of Jupplying what was wanting to com- pleat the Geography of thefe Parts ; fince it would certainly have been too dangerous an Experiment for a Chriftian to penetrate thus far into the Country.

The fever al Names of Places andTribes are all of them wrote according to our Engliih Pronunciation, and the Force of our own Alphabet. The Arabic Names alfo, as often as I could obtain them, are infer ted in their proper Cha- racters. The Archie Letters ^ gijm, 4 he, ^ waw, anfwer- ing to our j, h, w, make thofe Words, wherein they occur ^ have an eafier Tranfition into our Language, than into That of the French or Italians ; whofe <Lyiuthors, for Want


of fuel• correfpondent Letters, generally mif call the Arabic Appellations, and thereby render themujelejs toTravellers. Neither, isjill any of thefe Appellations, when thus wrote and pronounced, appear^ I prejume, morediffbnant to the Ear, than the greatefl Ψ art of Thofe njoe meet with in the antient Geography. For, (if we are not prejudiced by the Latin and Greek Terminations, which have been familiar to us

from our Touth,) El Khadara, {to mention no more) will aff eel the Ear with no more Harfhnefs than the antient Name Zucchabbari; ;ii?r Beni-ZeneiTel, //?/i'^ Herpiditani.

The 'Daggers (t) that are placed before fever al Cities of Bar bar y, denote thofe Ψ laces to have been Epij copal Sees, when this Country prof effed the Chriftian FaitL• We learn

from the Notitia, (E^c-y.-^o.) that they were, at one Time or other, w.ore than Six Hundred in Number ; which, confider- ing the Smallnefs of the African Cities, how nearly they were

fituatedto one another, and that each of them might enjoy the

fame Ecclefiafitcal Privilege, lamperfwaded, does not ex- ceed the Truth. But for want of Geographical Circum-

fiances, 1 have not been able to adjust the Situation of above one hundred of them; all or mofi of which, (notwith-

fanding they might have been afterwards enlarged and adorned^ were built long before the Chriftian-^ra, or evert the firfi Conquefls of this Country by the Romans.

In examining thefe Ruins, I have often wondred, that there fhould remain f ο many altars and other Tokens of the Pagan Idolatry and Superflition\ and fo very few Croffes or other Monuments of Chriftianity. c^j to the latter, how zealous foever the African Church might have been in putting them up, the Saracens have been induflrious enough in pulling them down. The Ax^hs certainly, when- ever they attend their Flocks , near any of thefe Ruins , make it a Piece of Devotion as well as Amufement, to deftroy and obliterate as much of them as they can. Wherein they are not a little encouraged by the Lead andiron, which the Antient s fometimes made ufe of in cramping of the Stones '^ and efpeciaUy by a great Variety of Coins which they more frequently meet with. c 2 Of




Of Thefe I had not the good Fortune to pur chafe many that were either "valuable or curiom. Thoje that are purely African, or carry along with them at Ιβαβ the Infignia and Char aclerifiicks of that Country, may he accounted the rarefl ; though indeed fome of them have been already taken Notice of by Agoftini, Paruta, and other authors. However as thoje which I have collect ed, may perhaps be the compleatefi Series of the Kind^ I have given the Draw- ings and Defcriptions of them in the CoUeclion ofPapers that are inferted after the Obfervations.

If we except the MiiTilia, (as fome Medalifts call the fmall Brajs Coins of the Lower Empire ,) the moft common are thofe of the Antonines, i?/ Alexander Severus, of the Tounger Gordian , and of Philip ; in whofe Times Africa feems to have been the mofl adorned with Roman Edifices. Some Pieces of G la fs- Money alfo are found now and then by the Arabs, in the Ruins of fuch of their antient Buildings, as are fuppofed to have been raijedby Occ'ba and Ben Eglib. For thefe Buildings, no lefs than thofe erected by the Carthaginians and their immediate Sucr- ceffors, have been fubject to their Changes and Revolutions. AU the Coins ^ which I have feen of this Kind, were flat on the one Side, and impreffed on the other, with the Ma- hometan Creed , ^^J^ J^-^ ^*=^ *^^i ^"^ ^^^^ ^ There is

no God but God; Mo-hammed is the Apoftle of God.

In putting together the Fhyfic aland MifceJlaneous Obfer- vations, I have endeavoured to ufe all the Brevity and Me- thod, the SubjeB would allow \ avoiding alfo, as much as poffible, the Repetition of what has been already taken Notice of by former authors. The Regifler of the Weather , (p. 2 1 ^.) was kept at the Houfe of the French Miffionaries above-mentioned, and therefore I can plead only the ^JMerit of being an Affiflant in that Branch of the Natural Hifiory,

In drawing up likewife the Catalogue of Plants, which contains near a hundred and forty unknown ^i^qqiqs, Ire- ceivedgreat Affiflance from Mr. Profeffor Dillenius, whofe



Chara^er in Botanical Learning , is isoell known to the ΨηΜΐ€\. We carefully compared all my Specimens ', with that large andwell-digeftedColleclion of dryed Plants, which Dr. W. Sherard bequeathed to the Phyfick Garden of the Univerfity ^Oxford 5 where all curious Perfons have an eafy ^ccefs, through the great Affability and communica- tive Temper of that worthy Gentleman, to whofe Care they are entrufled.

But left any Mi^akes fhould have been committed in the Defer iptions of Thefe or of the marine Vegetables, the ^lAu- thor has depofited the Originals in the Sherardian Colkclion, Recourfe may be had likewife to the other Curiofities, taken Notice of in //^i'/i'Obfervations {fuch as Foffils, Medals, &c.) in the Library of Queen's College ; where they may be confulted by the inquifitive Reader.

The feveral Dijfertations that are occafionally inter- fperfed throughout this Work will not , I pre fume , be thought Digreffions, as they flow naturally from the Sub- jeci. Neither need any apology be made for the Collection of Papers, that are infer ted after the Ohicrvations ; firice they are all of them either fo many Branches themf elves of the Natural Htftory, or elfe ferve to illuftrate fome Part or other of this Work.

7Ί6ί• Excerpta particularly from antient j^uthors, will certainly plead for themf elves, as they give the Reader, in one View, all that was known to the Antients , of thofe Parts of Bar bar y, which I have here undertaken to defcribe. They are constantly appealed to, in the marginal Notes of the

I The follo7v'i7ig Plants, having been overlooked in placing the Yhytographm alpbabet'icallj, are to be inferted according to their rcfpedivc Numbers : viz. after n°. 78. infert 78". &c.

78*. Borrago flo'ribus albis, foliis longis, folio fubtiis, incano. I. R. H.ayo. anguftis. ^69". Periploca foliis anguftis, confertis,

ijS". Clymenum pufillum, anguftifoliurti, floribus ex viridi flavefcendbus. Folia parva,

vexillo rubro, alls flavefcentibus. rigida, obtufa, qiudam acutiora, ad genicuU

164. Colocynthis pumila &c. Cucumis pltirima nafctintur. Flores pediculis brevibus

Africanus echinatus minor•. Hyftrix vegeta- hsrcnt e petalis angufiis compofiti. bilisvulgoHerm. Par. B.133. Defer. Cucumis 55^"• Sinapiftrum triphyllum breviore &

echinatus, Colocynthidis folio Ibid. Ic. hirfutiori folio. Hac Species etiam , infiar

22I^ Eruca fylveftris minor lutea, Burfs n. jy7 & yj8, vifcofa efl. Paftoris folio, Italica, Bar. Ic. 1016. Defer. 621*. Virga aurea major, foliis glutinofis

422. & graveolentibus. I. R. H. 414. Madramam

313*. HelianthemumHifpanicum, Origani Arabum. vid.Oi/. ρ^2<ί(ί.

d Geo-


xiv Τ Η Ε Ρ R Ε F A C Ε.

Geographical Part, "whenever the prefent State of that Country is compared "with the antient,

I have not followed the fame Method^ in illufirating the comparative Geography of thofe Farts of Syria, Egypt, and Arabia Petr^ea, that fell under my Obfervations. Whenever therefore I had Occafion to call in the Authority of the Ly4ntients, I have always done it by way of Note, in the exprefs Words of the (author. For ^ Books of this Kind being in few Ψ erf ons Hands, theReference alone, with- out the Words referred to, mufl frequently have excited a Curiofity that could not be gratified, and confequently would have been of little Service to the Reader.

The fame Reafon may be urged for the Variety of Notes and §i^otations , that are occafionally made ufe of, in the Mifcellaneous Parts of thefe Obfervations For as it was neceffary to produce fuch Evidence and ^^uthority, fo the Rotations themfelves can hardly be thought fuper^ fluous.

Thus have I given a general Account of this Work, and of the Affiβances J received in compiling it : a Work, which will require the Reader s Candor and Indulgence. For, notwithflanding every Sheet of it was looked over by feve- ral Learned Gentlemen of my Acquaintance ; yet, upon re- viewing, Ifindthatfome Errorsofthe Prefs', and, I fear, many Slips and Inaccuracies of Stile have efcaped me.

The Reader will be likewife plea fed to put a favourable Conflruciion, upon the lefs entertaining Faragraphs, that may too often occur in the Courfe of the GQo^raphic^l Ob- fervations. The Nature of the Subject (which confifls chiefly in the Enumeration of Places, Tribes, and their Di fiances from each other) would not permit them to be otherwife; and in This, we have both the Authority and Example of Strabo, Ptolemy, and other antient Geographers.

Tethow dry and tedious foever Difquifitions of this Kind may appear to fome Ferfons, the curious, I hope, will not be dijpleafed to find fever al difficult Ψ oints, both of the antient and modern Geography , thus explained and il-



luflrated. It is very certain, that the adjufliyig the feve^ ral Geographical Data, and laying dovjn Maps correfpon- dent to them, have been attended njoith no /mall Labour and Fatigue-, as the colleciing the Materials themfelves had be- fore expofed me to a Variety of T>angers and Difficulties.

Thefe Dangers and Difficulties I happily overcame : and mufl therefore return my humble Thanks to /to Almighty Providence, "which was gracioufly pleafed to fupport me under them, ^nd indeed I cannot conclude this Prelimi- nary Z)i/?(?/ir/i', without obferving, what a Jerious Train of Thought a Traveller can fcarce fail of being en- gaged in, when he views fuch a large Scene of Ruin and Defolation, as I have here defcribed. He isflruck immediate-• ly with the very Solitude ofthofefew Domes, and Porticos that are leftflanding ; which, Hiflory tells him, were once crowded with Inhabitants : where Scy phax and Ma.umiR ; Scipio and Csefar ; where the Orthodox Chriftians, and the Arians ; the Saracens and the Turks, have given Laws in their Turns, Every Heap of Ruins points out to him the JVeakneJs and In fl ability of all Human Art andContrivance ; reminding him further of the many thoufands that lye buried below, now loji in Oblivion, and forgotten to the World, Whilft He is full of thefe Meditations, Chriftianity fleps in to his Relief-, acquainting him, that We are only Strangers and Pilgrims upon Earth ; feeking a City, {not, Mi• Thefe, fubjeci to the Strokes of Time and Fortune, but) which hath Foundations, whofe Builder and Maker is God.









?Τ• 56.














90. 96.





107. ibid.




































190. 349•

In the Observations.






* * * *

doth thirty Marmol Ain Athreede

&c. N.E. twenty one feventy Mehomitatis Zwowah W. maybe

Welled Eifah : and, near the Fountains of the Sigan to the W.S.W.



E. S. E.


Dies Tyneta

for Dow-arah


five λιμίκι

irebere nvi GoNSER•


hrμcιru & »ζ>/ί-

Tmeartius HixTtciTzti






The Soil of it is

ftinking. did.

thirteen. Marmol ' . Jouebb, a great waytotheEall.

twenty fix.


Mahomctatts .



may have been.


PFelledEifah,ne^r the Fountains of the Sigaa : and &c.



S. S.E.




Pag. 155.

IT9• i6i. 191. 204. ibid. 245.

149• 264. 27?. 287. 906. 311. 912. 326. 347• 3Τ9• 3(58. 369. 370. 371. 372. 38i. 386. 397•

403. 421. 432.



14. 22.


9• ,



6. 31•

ay• 21. 18. 21.







4• 14.








In the Notes.


Dou-warah. Mahwah Shim >ΛΛ< ii»V./*.



priebere. Jovi or Ammo-


hfffgiTtt & »0«-

cariS'oif. niTT«iTitf. «Tl.

Pag. Not.




































Tall orFlavour

Spurge,Lawrel glutinous dele Publick. 13. 16. Venipae Dynefy Fermew extravagant inafmuch as,

brooze Bettany luguminous rarely Fleak fower dele other. Animals, when &c.

hindred every Thing

for <Ί' uuri

Jo/tij frutiffere in verbi


ΊξΙΜ «


θϊλΐί ίρίγιίλΜ

Δι» :τ»κιλή



NervaE; antrum. GermanIci. Adrumetum. Transeat. Phaleras. Tall and Fla- vour. Spurge-Lawrel, gelatinous.














Animals only, when &c.

ΣτβΛ/Γ«$. hundred, feveral Things.


a ovts.


fruttiferi. vi verbi.

Tfms h's. OEdipus.

«/(θ 1)7».



In the Collection of Papers &c.










for read.

Serves Servet.

Tritum Tretum.

rfp/iCAP. in. I J. r. 15:«. and for i^a. r. 15•.

I Pag. Line, for

14. 51. SiTAPHIUS

' 19. ult. Troglodytes

38. 68. tenuiter

40. n°. 2io&c. Elychryfum







Ctf ρ

A Mip oF tke W Ε S Τ Ε R ί^ί Κ Ο V τ ^ (1 ^ oi tlie Κ I IS" G TJ Ο Μ of A L• G IErT





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